terça-feira, 27 de setembro de 2016

Hercules, o Homem Ajoelhado, e o fabuloso Objeto Messier 13


Gosto muitíssimo de observar
um grupo de estrelas
bem ao meu norte,
entre a Coroa Boreal e a Lira
(e sempre o Grande Triângulo do Norte
composto pelas estrelas alpha da Lira, do Cisne e da Águia
- Vega, Deneb e Altair, respectivamente -
nos atrai a atenção... )
e tornando mais fácil, digamos assim,
observarmos esse grupo de estrelas..,
 estrelas que formam uma figura meio desengonçada...
apresentando Hercules, o Homem Ajoelhado
(e de cabeça para baixo,
a partir de nossa visão do hemisfério sul).

Em Hercules, estaremos encontrando
o Objeto Messier 13
- considerado o Aglomerado Globular mais famoso dos céus do norte.

Segundo Ronaldo Rogério Mourão,

"Mesmo a olho nu é visível como uma lastro pequeno e fosforescente 
e é um dos objetos favoritos a serem observados através o telescópio."

Também Ronaldo Mourão nos diz:
"Próximo à estrela Upsilon Herculis, situa-se o Apex Solar.  
Nosso sistema solar está, de fato, em movimento em relação à galáxia da Via Láctea. 
Seu movimento próprio traduz-se por um deslocamento aparente das estrelas. 
 A velocidade relativa do Sol em direção ao Apex
 é da ordem de 20 quilometros por segundo."

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward


Mario Jaci Monteiro - As Constelações, Cartas Celestes


Ascensão Reta 15h47m / 18h56m      Declinação +3o.9 / +51o.3

Esta constelação foi colocada no céu como recordação dos trabalhos 
realizados por Hércules
 (sendo que os Doze Trabalhos do herói são representados pelas doze constelações do Zodíaco). 
Entretanto, existem outros relatos de que, durante a guerra entre os Deuses e os Titãs, 
os primeiros se situaram em uma parte dos céus que quase tombou com o peso caso Atlas e Hercules não tivessem segurado!  
Então, Hércules foi colocado no céu em comemoração a esse seu serviço.

Algumas Informações Interessantes acerca esta Constelação:
Próximo à estrela Upsilon Herculis, situa-se o Apex Solar.  
Nosso sistema solar está, de fato, em movimento em relação à galáxia da Via Láctea. 
 Seu movimento próprio traduz-se por um deslocamento aparente das estrelas. 
 A velocidade relativa do Sol em direção ao Apex
 é da ordem de 20 quilometros por segundo.

Ophiucus, Aquila, Sagitta, Vulpecula, Lyra, Draco, Bootes, Corona Borealis, Serpens

6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão,
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986

The text is in the public domain.
[image ALT: a blank space]
Hercules with flashing mace.
Bryant's The Constellations.
stretching from just west of the head of Ophiuchus to Draco, its eastern border on the Milky Way, is one of the oldest sky figures, although not p239known to the first Greek astronomers under that name, — for Eudoxos had Ἐνγούνασι; Hipparchos, Ἐνγόνασι, i.e.  ἐν γόνασι καθήμενος, Bending on his Knees; and Ptolemy, ἐν γόνασιν. Aratos added to these designations Ὀκλάζων, the Kneeling One, and Ἔιδωλον, the Phantom, while his description in the Phainomena well showed the ideas of that early time as to its character:
. . . like a toiling man, revolves
A form. Of it can no one clearly speak,
Nor to what toil he is attached; but, simply,
Kneeler they call him. Laboring on his knees,
Like one who sinks he seems; . . .
. . . And his right foot
Is planted on the twisting Serpent's head.
But all tradition even as to
Whoe'er this stranger of the heavenly forms may be,
seems to have been lost to the Greeks, for none of them, save Eratosthenes, attempted to explain its origin, which in early classical days remained involved in mystery. He wrote of it, οὐτός,º φασὶν, Ἡρακλής ἐστίν, standing upon the Ὄφις, our Draco; and some modern students of Euphratean mythology, associating the stars of Hercules and Draco with the sun-god Izhdubar1 and the dragon Tiāmat, slain by him, think this Chaldaean myth the foundation of that of the classical Hercules and the Lernaean Hydra. Izhdubar is shown on a cylinder seal of 3000 to 3500 B.C., and described in that country's records as resting upon one knee, with his foot upon the Dragon's head, just as Aratos says of his Ἐνγόνασι, and as we have it now. His well-known adventures are supposed to refer to the sun's passage through the twelve zodiacal signs, appearing thus on tablets of the 7th century before Christ. This myth of several thousand years' antiquity may have been adopted by Greece, and the solar hero changed into Hercules with his twelve familiar labors.
This constellation is said to have been an object of worship in Phoenicia's most ancient days as the sky representative of the great sea-godMelkarth. Indeed, it has everywhere been considered of importance, judging from its abundant nomenclature and illustration, for no other sky group seems to have borne so many titles.
The usual Greek name was transliterated Engonasi, Engonasis, and Engonasin down to the days of Bullialdus, with whom it appeared in the queer p240combination of Greek and Roman letters  εn Γοnacín; but the poets translated it as Genuflexus, Genunixus, and Geniculatus;Ingeniculatus with Vitruvius [IX.4.5]; Ingeniclus and Ingeniculus with Firmicus [VIII.17.4]; while Ingenicla Imagoa and Ignota Facies appear in Manilius, — his familiar line [I.315],
Nixa venit species genibus, sibi conscia causae,
being liberally translated by Creech,
Conscious of his shame
A constellation kneels without a name.
We see with other authors the synonymous Incurvatus in genu, Procidens, Prociduus, Procumbens in genua, and Incumbens in genibus;Defectum Sidus and Effigies defecta labore; and the Tetrabiblos of 1551 had Qui in genibus est.
It also was Saltator, the Leaper; Χάρωψ, the Keen-eyed One; Κορυνήτης, and Κορυνηφόρος, the equivalents of Clavator and Claviger, the Club-bearer of the Latins: all applied to the constellation in early days, from classical designations of the hero Hercules, whose own name has now become universal for it. Although we first find this in the Catasterisms, Avienus asserted that it was used by Panyasis, the epic poet of 500 B.C., and uncle of Herodotus, perhaps to introduce into the heavens another Argonaut. The Nessus of Vitruviusb came from the story of Deianira, the innocent cause of Hercules' death, when, as in the Death of Wallenstein,
Soared he upward to celestial brightness;
Nisus, from the city of Nisa; Malica, Melica, Melicartus, and Melicerta, from the name of its king, known later as Palaemon, — although some refer these to the title of the great god of Phoenicia, Melkarth, the King of the City; and Aper, from the Wild Boar slain at Elis. It was Cernuator,cthe Wrestler, from the hero's skill; Caeteus, Ceteus, and Cetheus, as son of Lycaon, and so uncle or brother of Kallisto, who, as Ursa Major, adjoined this constellation; indeed, it was even known as Lycaon himself, weeping over Kallisto's transformation. Ovid's Alcides was a common poetical title, either from Ἀλκή, Strength, or from Alcaeus, Hercules' grandfather; while Almannus and Celticus came from the fact that a similar hero was worshiped by the Germans and Celts, themselves noted for strength and daring deeds, and said to have been descended from Hercules. The unexplained Pataecus and Epipataecus are from Egypt; Maceris, from Libya; while Desanaus, Desanes, and Dosanes, or Dorsanes, are said to be of Hindu origin.
p241Other titles are Ixion, laboring at his wheel, perhaps because Hercules also labored; or from the radiated object shown on Euphratean gems, a supposed representation of the solar prototype of Hercules, which in later times may easily have been regarded as a wheel; Prometheus, bending in chains on Caucasus; Thamyris sad at the loss of his lyre; Amphitryoniades, from the supposed sire of Hercules; Heros Tirynthius, from the place where he was reared; and Oetaeus, from the mountain range of Thessaly whence he ascended the funeral pyre. The Sanctus that has appeared as a title is properly Sancus, the Semo Sancus, of Sabine-Umbrian-Roman mythology, identified with Hercules. Theseus was a name for this constellation, from the similar adventures of the originals; Mellus and Ovillus trace back to the Malum and Ovis in the myth of the Apples, or Sheep, of the Hesperides, with which the story of Hercules is connected, — different ideas, but both from μῆλον, with this double signification; although La Lande thought that reference was made to the skin of the lion thrown over the hero's shoulder. We also occasionally see Diodas, Manilius, Orpheus, and Trapezius, the exact connection of which with our sky figure is not certain.
The 4th edition of the Alfonsine Tables singularly adds Rasaben, from the neighboring Draco's Al Ras al Thuʽban.
Bayer erroneously quoted Γνύξ ἐριπών, on Bended Knee, as if from Homer; and gave Ἔιδωλον ἄπευθος, the Unknown Image, and Imago laboranti similis. He also cited the Persians' Ternuelles, which Beigel suggested might be from their mistaken orthography of the word Hercules; and Hyde added another term, from that people, in Ber zanū nisheste, Resting on his Knees, a repetition of the earliest idea as to the figure.
Flammarion states that he found our modern title first mentioned in an edition of Hyginus of 1485, — but he had not read Eratosthenes; and some say that even this Hercules of Hyginus was really designed for the adjacent Ophiuchus.
The modern Italians' Ercole is like their Roman predecessors' abbreviated name for the deity, who was one of their most frequent objects of adjuration.
Our stellar figure generally has been drawn with club and lion-skin, the left foot on Draco and the right near Boötes, the reversal of these by Aratos being criticized by Hipparchos; but the Farnese globe shows a young man, nude and kneeling; while the Leyden Manuscript very inappropriately drew it as a young boy, erect, with a short star-tipped shepherd's crook, bearing a lion's skin and head. Bayer shows the strong man kneeling, clothed in the lion's skin, with his "all brazen" club and the Apple Branch.
p242This last he called Ramus pomifer, the German Zweig, placing it in the right hand of Hercules, on the edge of the Milky Way; but this even then was an old idea, for the Venetian illustrator of Hyginus in 1488 showed, in the constellation figure, an Apple Tree with a serpent twisted around its trunk. Argelander followed Bayer's drawing, but Heis transfers the Branch to the left hand, with two vipers as a reminder of the now almost forgotten stellar Cerberus with serpents' tongues, which Bayer did not know. The French and Italians, who give more prominence to these adjuncts of Hercules than do we, have combined them in a sub-constellation Rameau et Cerbèreº and Ramo e Cerbero. In all this, as well as in some of the titles of the Hercules constellation and of Draco, reappears the story of the Golden Fruits of the Hesperides with their guardian dragon.
It may have been the serpent and apples in our picturing of the constellation that aided Miss Rolleston to her substitution of the biblical Adam for the mythological Hercules. Others, however, changed the latter to Samson with the jawbone of an ass; and Julius Schiller multiplied him into the Three Magi.
The Arabians turned the classical Saltator, or Leaper, into Al Raīs, the Dancer;2 as also Ἐνγόνασι, into Al Jathiyy aʽla Rukbataihi, the One who Kneels on both Knees; this subsequently degenerating into Elgeziale rulxbachei, Alcheti hale rechabatih, Elzegeziale, and Elhathi. It also has often appeared as Alchete and Alcheti; as Algethi, and, in the 1515 Almagest and Alfonsine Tables of 1521, as Algiethi incurvati super genu ipsius.
Argelander catalogues 155 naked-eye stars in Hercules, and Heis 227.
Between ζ and η, two thirds of the way from ζ, is NGC 6205, 13 M., the finest cluster in the northern heavens. Halley discovered this in 1714 and thought it a nebula, whence its early title, the Halley Nebula; but it is remarkable that it was not sooner seen, for it is visible by the unaided eye, although only 8′ in diameter. Herschel's estimate that it contains 14,000 stars is so high that some regard it as a typographical error for 4000; the number counted by Harvard observers is 724, outside of the nucleus. Miss Clerke records an opinion that it may be 558,000 millions of miles in diameter, and distant from us sixty-five light years; but we have as yet no certain determination of either size or distance. Burnham notes one of its central stars as double, an infrequent occurrence in compressed clusters; and Campbell of the Lick Observatory writes:
p243In the Hercules cluster the stars are perhaps very little denser than the streams of nebulous matter in which they are situated, and hence their density is [i.e. may be] only something a thousand millionth part of that of the sun.
Bailey finds no variables in it.
In the early days of Arab astronomy a space in the heavens, coinciding with parts of Hercules, Ophiuchus, and Serpens, was the Rauah, or Pasture, the Northern Boundary of which, the Nasa Shāmiyy, was marked by the stars β and γ Herculis, the Syrians' Row of Pearls, with β andγ Serpentis in continuation of the Pasture line; while δ, α, and ε Serpentis, with δ, ε, ζ, and γ Ophiuchi, formed the Southern Boundary, the Nasa Yamaniyyah. The group of stars now known as the Club of Hercules was the Sheep within the Pasture.


ápice solar, também denominado ápex solar ou simplesmente ápex,[1] refere-se à direção de movimento do Sol, em relação ao sistema local de repouso a uma velocidade de 19,4 quilômetros por segundo em direção à constelação de Hércules, a sudeste da estrela Vega. As estrelas, inclusive o Sol, movem-se umas em relação às outras por conta das diferentes órbitas que descrevem ao redor do centro da Via Láctea. Como o Sol aparentemente segue para um ponto definido, o movimento aparente das outras estrelas cria a impressão de que estas estão-se afastando do ápice solar. O antiápice solar é a direção oposta ao ápice, que localiza-se na direção da estrela Zeta Canis Minoris.[2][3]
Após analisar o movimento próprio de algumas estrelasWilliam Herschel foi o primeiro astrônomo a propor, no início do século XIX, que o Sol se movia em relação às estrelas, e que esse movimento apontava para a constelação de Hércules. A aceitação dessa ideia não foi imediata. Contudo, o ponto exato do ápice solar ainda era difícil de ser determinado, sendo que diferentes astrônomos chegaram a vários resultados diferentes.[4]


El ápex solar, calculado a partir de observaciones en el rango visual del movimiento propio de las estrellas vecinas, se sitúa en (18 h 28 m 0 s α, +30° δ) expresado en coordenadas ecuatoriales, o en (56,24° l, 22,54° b) expresado en coordenadas galácticas. Las observaciones de radio dan una posición ligeramente diferente: (18 h 03 m 50,2 s α, +30° 00′ 16,8″ δ) ó (58,87° l, 17,72° b). Ambos puntos se sitúan en la constelación de Hércules, al suroeste de la estrella Vega (Alfa Lyrae), fijando el antápex en las proximidades de la estrella ζ Canis Minoris.

"Atlas Image [or Atlas Image mosaic] obtained as part of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation." 

Messier 13

Globular Cluster M13 (NGC 6205), class V, in Hercules

Hercules Globular Cluster

Right Ascension16 : 41.7 (h:m)
Declination+36 : 28 (deg:m)
Distance25.1 (kly)
Visual Brightness5.8 (mag) 
Apparent Dimension20.0 (arc min)

Discovered by Edmond Halley in 1714.

Messier 13 (M13, NGC 6205), also called the 'Great globular cluster in Hercules', is one of the most prominent and best known globulars of the Northern celestial hemisphere.

It was discovered by Edmond Halley in 1714, who noted that 'it shows itself to the naked eye when the sky is serene and the Moon absent.' According to Charles Messier, who cataloged it on June 1, 1764, it is also reported in John Bevis' "English" Celestial Atlas.



Portscan - Obra do próprio

NGC 6205 - M 13 - Aglomerado Globular Hercules
Ascensão Reta 16h41       Declinação +36o.30
Magnitude fotográfica global 6,4       Diâmetro aparente 12’,9         Tipo Espectral F6
Magnitude média das 25 mais brilhantes estrelas (excluindo as 5 mais brilhantes) 13,85
Número conhecido de Variáveis 10          Distância kpc 6,3 
Velocidade Radial (km/s)   - 241

Este é considerado o aglomerado globular mais familiar do céu do norte.  
Mesmo a olho nu é visível como uma lastro pequeno e fosforescente 
e é um dos objetos favoritos a serem observados através o telescópio. 
O aglomerado contém cerca de 1 milhão de estrelas 
e estima-se que tenha cerca de 10 mil milhões anos 
e sua distância é de 34.000 anos-luz.

6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão,
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986

Heart of M13 Hercules Globular ClusterPublic Domain
This image, taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, shows the core of the great globular cluster Messier 13 and provides an extraordinarily clear view of the hundreds of thousands of stars in the cluster, one of the brightest and best known in the sky. Just 25 000 light-years away and about 145 light-years in diameter, Messier 13 has drawn the eye since its discovery by Edmund Halley, the noted British astronomer, in 1714. The cluster lies in the constellation of Hercules and is so bright that under the right conditions it is even visible to the unaided eye. As Halley wrote: “This is but a little Patch, but it shews it self to the naked Eye, when the Sky is serene and the Moon absent.” Messier 13 was the target of a symbolic Arecibo radio telescope message that was sent in 1974, communicating humanity’s existence to possible extraterrestrial intelligences. However, more recent studies suggest that planets are very rare in the dense environments of globular clusters. This picture was created from images taken with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Data through a blue filter (F435W) are coloured blue, data through a red filter (F625W) are coloured green and near-infrared data (through the F814W filter) are coloured red. The exposure times are 1480 s, 380 s and 567 s respectively and the field of view is about 2.5 arcminutes across

Trouvelot - Star clusters in Hercules - 1877Domínio público
Esboço de M13, desenhado por Étienne Léopold Trouvelot em 1877
Star cluster Messier 13 in Hercules. From a study made in June, 1877. (Plate XIV from The Trouvelot Astronomical Drawings 1881)

Messier 13 (M13), also designated NGC 6205 and sometimes called the Great Globular Cluster in Hercules or the Hercules Globular Cluster, is a globular cluster of about 300,000 stars in the constellation of Hercules.

M13 was discovered by Edmond Halley in 1714, and catalogued by Charles Messier on June 1, 1764.
It is located at right ascension 16h 41.7m and declination +36° 28'. With an apparent magnitude of 5.8, it is barely visible with the naked eye on a very clear night. Its diameter is about 23 arc minutes and it is readily viewable in small telescopes. Nearby is NGC 6207, a 12th magnitude edge-on galaxy that lies 28 arc minutes directly north east. A small galaxy, IC 4617, lies halfway between NGC 6207 and M13, north-northeast of the large globular cluster's center.
Messier 13
Heart of M13 Hercules Globular Cluster.jpg
The heart of Hercules Globular Cluster;
Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension16h 41m 41.24s[2]
Declination+36° 27′ 35.5″[2]
Distance22.2 kly (6.8 kpc)[3]
Apparent magnitude(V)+5.8[4]
Apparent dimensions(V)20 arcmins
Physical characteristics
Mass6×105[5] M
Radius84 ly[6]
Metallicity–1.33[7] dex
Estimated age11.65 Gyr[7]
Notable featuresone of the best-known clusters of the northern hemisphere
Other designationsNGC 6205[4]
See also: Globular clusterList of globular clusters

Messier 13 Hubble WikiSky
en:NASAen:STScIen:WikiSky - en:WikiSky's snapshot tool - [1]

Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas
são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo 
e que possibilitam nossa mente a ir percebendo que existe mais, bem mais,
 entre o céu e a terra..., 
bem como percebendo que o caos, 
vai se tornando Cosmos
 e este por nossa mente sendo conscientizado.

Quer dizer, 
nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward