quarta-feira, 28 de setembro de 2016

Tesouros incrustados em Coroa Boreal, Corona Borealis


Sempre em noites de céus escuros e transparentes
 e de ausência de Lua,
podemos nos encantar com a doce presença 
de um colar de estrelas tímidas
denominadas de Coroa do Norte,
 Corona Borealis, a Coroa Boreal.

Penso que estes momentos de agora
são interessantes para irmos nos despedindo
dessa constelação tão bela
que vem buscando esconder-se
por detrás do horizonte oeste.

Nesta Postagem, Caro Leitor,
estaremos trazendo um tantinho de informações 
sobre esta delicada jóia dos céus estrelados do norte
 - Corona Borealis -
em suas tímidas estrelas, suas visíveis pedras preciosas
incrustadas e desenhando uma verdadeira coroa estelar!

Porém, existem outras tantas e tantas pedras preciosas
sendo acolhidas pela Coroa do Norte:
de tantas que são podem ser consideradas fazendo parte
de Superaglomerado! 
Corona Borealis Supercluster 
encontra-se a cerca de um bilhão de anos-luz de distância.

Existe a Grande Muralha Hercules-Corona Borealis 
(Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall)
que representa uma imensa superestrutura de galáxias 
traduzida como a maior e mais massiva estrutura conhecida no universo observável
e em uma distância de cerca de 10 bilhões de anos-luz da Terra. 

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward



"CoronaBorealisCC" by Till Credner - Own work: AlltheSky.com. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CoronaBorealisCC.jpg#/media/File:CoronaBorealisCC.jpg


Mario Jaci Monteiro - As Constelações, Cartas Celestes


Algumas Informações Interessantes 
sobre Corona Borealis:

Esta constelação apresenta estrelas delicadas e pálidas e inclui sua estrela-Alpha (Gemma)  e suas estrelas Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilone, Iota, Upsilon formando o colar propriamente dito.

Corona Borealis Supercluster (Aglomerado de Galáxias) é famoso principalmente por ser um dos muitos aglomerados usados por Milton Humason e Edwin Hubble, na década dos anos de 1930, para demonstrar que o universo está em expansão.

Representa o colar ofertado por Vênus a Ariadne quando de seu casamento com Baco, depois desta ter sido recusada por Teseu.

Corona Borealis situa-se entre Serpens, Hercules, Bootes

Algmas Estrelas 
na constelação da Coroa Boreal:

Alphecca ou Gemma.  Alpha Coronae Borealis. 
Ascensão Reta 15h33,8 - Declinação +26o 47’
Magnitude visual 2,31 - Distância 76 anos-luz
Uma estrela branca e brilhante no laço do cordão.  De Al Na’ir al Fakkah. A Mais Bela da Coroa. 

Nusakan - Beta Coronae Borealis
O Indigente, expressão árabe Kasat al Masakin, o lançador indigente, usado para designar a constelação entre os persas.

S Coronae Borealis - Estrela Variável
Ascensão Reta 15h19         Declinação +31o.33
Magnitudes:  Max 6,0    Min 13,4     
Tipo PLG     Espectro M7e

R Coronae Borealis - Estrela Variável Irregular
Ascensão Reta 15h46m         Declinação +28o.18
Magnitudes:  Max 5,8     Min   13,8    Período 354,4
Tipo  IRR    Espectro G0p

T Coronae Borealis - Estrela Variável Irregular
Ascensão Reta 15h57m         Declinação +26o.04
Magnitudes:  Max 2,0    Min   10,6    Período
Tipo  IRR    Espectro Peculiar

- 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão,
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986

IAU - International Astronomical Union

The text is in the public domain.
[image ALT: a blank space]
Looke! how the crowne which Ariadne wore
Upon her yvory forehead, . . .
Being now placed in the firmament,
Through the bright heavens doth her beams display,
And is unto the starres an ornament,
Which round about her move in order excellent.
Spenser's Faerie Queen.
Corona Borealis, the Northern Crown,
is the French Couronne Boréale, the German Nördliche Krone, and the Italian ancestral Corona.
It was the only stellar crown known to Eratosthenes and the early Greeks, but they called it Στέφανος, a Wreath; and their successors, who had begun to locate the Southern Crown, added to this title of the original the distinguishing πρῶτος and βόρειος to show its priority and its northern position. The Latins adopted the Greek name and adjectives in Corona borea, borealis, and septentrionalis; and further knew it as the Crown of Vulcan fashioned ex auro et indicis gemmis; or of Amphitrite, probably from its proximity in the sky to the Dolphin associated with that goddess. But generally it was Ariadnaea Corona, Corona Ariadnae, Corona Ariadnes, Cressa Corona, Corona Gnosida, Corona Cretica andGnossis, varied by Minoia Corona and Minoia Virgo found with Valerius Flaccus and Germanicus, and Ariadnaea Sidus with Ovid; these classical designations referring to Ariadne, or to her father Minos, king of Crete, and to her birthplace in that island, at Gnosos, where Theseus married her. When deserted by him she became the wife of Liber Bacchus, and so took his name Libera; while the crown that Theseus — or, as some said, the goddess Venus — had given her was transferred to the sky, where it became our Corona; and, as early as the 3rd century B.C., Apollonius Rhodius wrote in his Argonauticae:
Still her sign is seen in heaven,
And midst the glittering symbols of the sky
The starry crown of Ariadne glides.
Keats changed this in his Lamia to Ariadne's tiar; and others made it the Coiled Hair of Ariadne as companion to the Streaming Tresses of Berenice (Coma Berenices). Some authors, however, — Ovid among them in his Fasti [3.459‑561] — said that Ariadne herself became the constellation; and Mrs. Browning, in her Paraphrases from Nonnus of How Bacchus comforts Ariadne:
p175Or wilt thou choose
A still surpassing glory? — take it all —
A heavenly house, Kronion's self for kin.
This legend of Ariadne and her Crown seems to have been first recorded by Pherecydes early in the 5th century before Christ.
Dante, referring to Ariadne's descent, called these stars la Figliuola di Minoi, the poet giving much prominence to her father,1 who "was so renowned for justice as to be called the Favorite of the Gods, and after death made Supreme Judge in the Infernal Regions."
In all ages Corona has been a favorite, popularly as well as in literature, and few of our stellar groups have had as many titles, although the English of the Middle Ages usually wrote its wearer's name "Adrian" and "Adriane."
Chaucer had this strange passage on the constellation:
And in the sygne of Taurus men may se
The stonys of hire coroune shyne clere;
but this seems unintelligible, unless from some confusion in the poet's mind with the location of Koronis of the Hyades. These, however, lie in the heavens just opposite the Crown, and Skeat ingeniously suggests that Chaucer may have meant that when the Sun was in Taurus the Crown was specially noticeable in the midnight sky, as is exactly the case.
"England's Arch Poet," Edmund Spenser, wrote in the Shepheard's Kalendar2 of 1579:
And now the Sunne hath reared up his fierie footed teme,
Making his way between the Cuppe and golden Diademe;
one of the early titles of Corona being Diadema Coeli.
The Wreath of Flowers, occasionally seen for it, is merely the early signification of the words Στέφανος and Corona.
Oculus was another name of the constellation — a term common in poetry and post-Augustan prose for any celestial luminary; and Prudens3called it Maera, the Shining One.
As the ardens corona of the Georgics, Vergil included it with the Pleiades as a calendar sign, May translating the passage:
p176But if thou plow to sowe more solid graine,
A wheat or barley harvest to obtaine:
First let the morning Pleiades be set,
And Ariadne's shining Coronet,
Ere thou commit thy seed to ground, and there
Dare trust the hope of all the following yeare.
Columella, in a similar connection, called it Gnosia Ardor Bacchi, and Naxius Ardor, from Naxos, where Ariadne had been deserted by Theseus; and specially designated its lucida as clara stella.
Its stars were favored also by the astrologers, Manilius expressing this in:
Births influenc'd then shall raise fine Beds of Flowers,
And twine their creeping Jasmine round their Bowers;
The Lillies, Violets in Banks dispose,
The Purple Poppy, and the blushing Rose:
For Pleasure shades their rising Mounts shall yield,
And real Figures paint the gawdy Field;
Or they shall wreath their Flowers, their Sweets entwine,
To grace their Mistress, or to Crown their Wine.
Bayer said of it Azophi Parma, by which he meant that Al Sufi called it a Shield; but the majority of Arabian astronomers rendered the classical title by Al Iklil al Shamāliyyah, which degenerated into Acliluschemali and Aclushemali, and appeared with Ulug Beg as plain Iklīl.
But in early Arabia there was a different figure here, Al Fakkah, the Dish, which Ulug Beg's translator gave as Phecca, and others as Alphaca,Alfecca, Alfacca, Foca, Alfeta, and Alfelta; while Riccioli said Alphena Syrochaldaeis; and Schickard, Alphakhaco.
Hyde quoted asʽat al Sālik, and asʽat al Masākīn, the Pauper's Bowl; and the Persians had the same in their Kāsah Darwishān, the Dervish's Platter, or Kāsah Shekesteh, the Broken Platter, because the circle is incomplete. Bullialdus latinized some of these titles in his Discus parvus confractus, evidently taken from Chrysococca's Πινάκιν κεκλασμένον, a Small Broken Dish, which, however, should read Πινάκιον.
The Alfonsine Tables have Malfelcarre, "of the Chaldaeans," Riccioli's Malphelcane, considered by Ideler a degenerate form of the ArabicAl Munīr al Fakkah, the Bright One of the Dish; though Buttmann derived it from Al Malf al Khatar, the Loop of the Wreath, or the Junction of the Crown; and Scaliger suggested Al Malif al Kurra, of somewhat similar meaning, more correctly written Al Milaff al Kurrah. Bayer saidMalphelcarre quod est sertum pupillae, the Circle of the Pupil of the Eye; and, although he did not explain this, may have written better than he knew, p177for Pupilla is the Latin equivalent of Κόρη, which, as a proper name, was a title for Persephone. In La Lande's Astronomie Dupuis devoted much space to his identification of this goddess, the Latin Proserpina, with the Chaldaean Phersephon, taking the title from Pheʽer, Crown, andSerphon, Northern. Thus, if Dupuis be correct, the origin of the figure, as well as of the name, may lie far back of Cretan days.
The Hebrews are said to have called it ʽAārōth, the Crown, — perhaps of the Semitic queen Cushiopeia; and the Syrians, Ashtaroth, their Astarte, the Ἀφροδίτη of the Greeks and the Venus of the Latins; but all this seems doubtful, as also is Ewald's conjecture that it was the biblical Mazzārōth.
Blake quotes from Flammarion, Vichaca, but without explanation.
Reeves catalogued it as the Chinese Kwan Soo, a Cord.
In Celtic story Corona was Caer Arianrod, the House of Arianrod or Ethlenn, the sister of Gwydyon and daughter of Don, the Fairy King, this name bearing a singular resemblance to that of the classical owner of the Crown.
The Shawnee Indians knew it as the Celestial Sisters, the fairest of them being the wife of the hunter White Hawk, our Arcturus.
Caesius said that it represented the Crown that Ahasuerus placed upon Esther's head, or the golden one of the Ammonite King of a talent's weight, or the Crown of Thorns worn by the Christ.
The Leyden Manuscript shows it as a laurel wreath, and thus, or as a typical crown, it appears on the maps. In the Firmamentum Firmianum, a work of 1731, in honor of the persecuting bishop of Salzburg, of the Firmian family, the figuring is that of the Corona Firmiana, with a stag's antlers from the coat of arms of that family. But an exception to the rule may be noted in an illustration, in the original Alfonsine Tables, of a plain three-quarter circle, entirely unlike either crown or wreath. Proctor suggested that in the earliest astronomy it may have formed the right arm of Boötes.
It is interesting to the astronomer from its many close binaries, and is a favorite object with youthful observers, who generally know it asAriadne's Crown. It certainly is much more like that for which it is named than usually is the case with our sky figures; and it is equally suggestive to the Australian native of the Woomera, our Boomerang, his idea of Corona's stars.
Here appeared very suddenly, 58′ south of ε, on the 12th of May, 1866, the celebrated Blaze Star as a 2d‑magnitude visible to the naked eye for only eight days, declining, with some fluctuations, to the 10th magnitude at the rate of half a magnitude a day, but rising again to the 8th, where it p178still remains as T Coronae, a pale yellow, slightly variable star. Although called a nova, Argelander had already mapped it on the 18th of May, 1855, and again noted it on the 31st of March, 1856, probably at its normal magnitude. It was the first temporary star to be "studied by the universal chemical method" — the spectroscope.
Near its place the Variabilis Coronae, now lettered R, was discovered by Pigott in 1795, still varying from 5.8 to 13, but with much irregularity.
Professor Young repeats the βαγδει of Cassiopeia as a help to the memory in locating the stars of this constellation. The extreme northern one is θ, but then follow in order β, α, γ, δ, ε, ι. They form an almost perfect semicircle 20° northeast of Arcturus.
Argelander gives a total of 27 stars visible to the naked eye; and Heis, 31.
One plac'd i' th' front above the rest displays
A vigorous light, and darts surprising rays —
The Monument of the forsaken Maid.
Creech's Manilius.
α, 2.4, brilliant white.
Alphecca, the Alphaca of Burritt's Atlas of 1835, was Ulug Beg's Al Nāʽir al Fakkah, the Bright One of the Dish, this Nāʽir being equivalent to the Latin word lucida.
Bayer asserted that the Arabs knew this star as Pupilla, which also appears in the nomenclature of the constellation, with a possible clue to its derivation; but as the word belongs to Lyra, and is certainly not Arabic, we may have to recur to first principles for its origin in the classicalPapilla.
Munir, found with Bayer as of the "Babylonians," — by whom he probably intended those gifted in astrology, — is from the Arabs, and synonymous with their Nāʽir. Chilmead gave this as Munic.
In Vergil's Georgics it was Gnosia Stella Coronae.
Gemma and Gemma Coronae were not used in classical times, but are later titles, perhaps from Ovid's gemmasque novem [Fasti, 3.515] that Vulcan combined with his auro to make Ariadne's Crown; but Spence said, in his Polymetis, that the word should be taken in its original meaning of a Bud, referring to the unopened blossoms and leaves of the floral crown, thus agreeing with the early idea of the figure. The Gemaoccasionally seen unquestionably is from an early type omission.
Alphecca is the central one of the seven brightest members of the group, and in modern times has been Margarita Coronae, the Pearl of the Crown, p179occasionally transformed into Saint Marguerite. It marks the loop, or knot, of the ribbon along which are fastened the buds, flowers, or leaves of the wreath shown in early drawings with two long out-streaming ends.
The spectrum is of Secchi's Solar type; and the star is receding from our system at the rate of •about twenty miles a second. It has a distant 8th‑magnitude companion, and culminates on the 28th of June.
It marks the radiant point of the Coronids, the meteor shower visible from the 12th of April to the 30th of June.
β, a 4th‑magnitude northwest from Alphecca, is Nusakan in the 2d edition of the Palermo Catalogue, derived from the Masākīn of the constellation.

γη, and σ, though unnamed, are all interesting binary stars.

"Universum" por Heikenwaelder Hugo, Austria, Email : heikenwaelder@aon.at, www.heikenwaelder.at - Heikenwaelder Hugo, Austria, Email : heikenwaelder@aon.at, www.heikenwaelder.at. Licenciado sob CC BY-SA 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Universum.jpg#/media/File:Universum.jpg
Holzschnitt aus Camille Flammarion: L'Atmosphere - Météorologie Populaire. Paris 1888. Kolorit : Heikenwaelder Hugo, Wien 1998. La version en noir & blanc connue est dans Camille Flammarion (1842-1925).- L'atmosphère : météorologie populaire, Hachette, Paris, 1888, p. 163.

This website belongs to Richard Powell
(traduzido em excertos por Janine)

Aglomerado de Galáxias
Abell 2065

Na proximidade das estrelas Alpha e Beta,
encontra-se o Aglomerado de Galáxias em Corona Borealis.

Esta é a mais distante das famosas Famílias de Aglomerados, os Superclusters ou Superaglomerados de Galáxias.  Já por um bom tempo, reconhece-se que existe um imenso número de ricas galáxias nesta pequena constelação.  A2065 é muito possivelmente o aglomerado dominante neste lugar, porém existem outros nove ou dez imensos aglomerados que também se mostram bem ricos.  Dois desses, A2122 e A2124, são, na verdade, o mesmo aglomerado.  A2124 encontra-se ao centro do aglomerado enquanto A2122 é sua extensão.

Corona Borealis é um superaglomerado que dista cerca de 1 bilhão de anos-luz.
Numa área equivalente ao disco de nossa Lua existem muitas e muitas galáxias.

Abaixo, veja a imagem do centro do Aglomerado A2065.  Este aglomerado é frequentemente chamado de Aglomerado Corona Borealis.  Este é o mais rico aglomerado de galáxias no Superaglomerado Corona Borealis.  Este aglomerado é famoso principalmente pelo fato de ter sido um dos muitos aglomerados usados por Milton Humason e Edwin Hubble, na década dos anos 1930, para demonstrar que o universo encontra-se em expansão.


Três cientistas publicaram seus Papers anunciando a presença de um outro Supercluster atrás do superaglomerado Corona Borealis (associado a A2034, A2029, A2062, A2069 e A2083) numa distância de 1.5 bilhões de anos-luz (redshift 0. 113).  Eles também acreditam que os aglomerados ao centro do Supercluster Corona Borealis estão colapsando em conjunto e, eventualmente, estão formando um imenso aglomerado.

(traduzido em excertos por Janine)

Corona Borealis Supercluster
The Corona Borealis SuperclusterThe most distant of the famous superclusters. It has long been recognised that there are a large number of rich galaxy clusters in this small constellation. A2065 is probably the dominant cluster here, but there are another nine or ten large clusters here which are also rich. The supercluster is about 1 billion light years away.
The 60000 brightest galaxies

An all-sky plot of the 60000 brightest galaxies shows how galaxies clump together into large supercluster formations. The positions of some of the major superclusters are marked although only the nearest superclusters are prominant. Only four of these galaxies are visible with the naked eye. The large, dark, circular band is the plane of our own Galaxy where it is difficult to see distant galaxies because of all the foreground gas, dust and stars.

This website belongs to Richard Powell

This website belongs to Richard Powell
The universe within 1 billion light-years (307 Mpc) of Earth, showing local superclusters forming filaments and voids.

"2MASS LSS chart-NEW Nasa" by IPAC/Caltech, by Thomas Jarrett - "Large Scale Structure in the Local Universe: The 2MASS Galaxy Catalog", Jarrett, T.H. 2004, PASA, 21, 396. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2MASS_LSS_chart-NEW_Nasa.jpg#/media/File:2MASS_LSS_chart-NEW_Nasa.jpg

"Panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The image is derived from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog (XSC)—more than 1.5 million galaxies, and the Point Source Catalog (PSC)--nearly 0.5 billion Milky Way stars. The galaxies are color-coded by 'redshift' obtained from theUGCCfA, Tully NBGC, LCRS, 2dF, 6dFGS, and SDSS surveys (and from various observations compiled by the NASA Extragalactic Database), or photo-metrically deduced from the K band (2.2 um). Blue are the nearest sources (z < 0.01); green are at moderate distances (0.01 < z < 0.04) and red are the most distant sources that 2MASS resolves (0.04 < z < 0.1). The map is projected with an equal area Aitoff in the Galactic system (Milky Way at center)." [50]

The Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall (Her–CrB GW) is an immense superstructure of galaxies that measures more than 10 billion light-years across.[1][2] It is the largest and the most massive structure known in the observable universe.
This huge structure was discovered in November 2013 by a mapping of gamma-ray bursts that occur in the distant universe.[1][2][4] The astronomers used data from the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
The Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall was also the first structure other than large quasar groups that held the title as largest known structure in the universe, since 1991.
The structure is a galaxy filament,[2] or a huge group of galaxies assembled by gravity. It is about 10 billion light-years (3 Gpc) at its longest dimension, which is approximately 1/9 (10.7%) of the diameter of the observable universe, 7.2 billion light-years (2.2 Gpc; 150,000 km/s in redshift space) wide,[2] but only 900 million light-years (300 Mpc) thick, and is the largest known structure in the universe. It is at redshift 1.6–2.1, corresponding to a distance of approximately 10 billion light-years away,[1][2] and is located in the sky in the direction of the constellations Hercules and Corona Borealis.[4]

Observation data (Epoch J2000)
Constellation(s)Hercules and Corona Borealis[1]
Right ascension17h 50m
Declination+27° 45′
Major axisGpc (10 Gly)[1][2]
Minor axis2.2 Gpc (7 Glyh−1
Redshift1.6 to 2.1[1][2]
9.612 to 10.538 billion light-years(light travel distance)[3]
15.049 to 17.675 billion light-years
(present comoving distance)[3]
Binding mass1.5×1019 M[citation needed]

Andrew Pontzen and Fabio Governato - https://www.flickr.com/photos/uclmaps/15051460475/
Galaxy filaments, walls and voids form web-like structures

In physical cosmologygalaxy filaments, also called supercluster complexesgreat walls, or great attractors,[1][2] are amongst the largest known cosmic structures in the universe. They are massive, thread-like formations, with a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs h−1, (163 to 261 million light years) that form the boundaries between large voids in the universe.[3] Filaments consist of gravitationally bound galaxies; parts where a large number of galaxies are very close to each other (in cosmic terms) are called superclusters.


The Known Universe by AMNH

The Known Universe takes viewers from the Himalayas through our atmosphere and the inky black of space to the afterglow of the Big Bang. Every star, planet, and quasar seen in the film is possible because of the world's most complete four-dimensional map of the universe, the Digital Universe Atlas that is maintained and updated by astrophysicists at the American Museum of Natural History. The new film, created by the Museum, is part of an exhibition, Visions of the Cosmos: From the Milky Ocean to an Evolving Universe, at the Rubin Museum of Art in Manhattan through May 2010. 

Data: Digital Universe, American Museum of Natural History

Visualization Software: Uniview by SCISS

SourceOwn work
AuthorAndrew Z. Colvin

SAIBA MAIS, muito mais!

Elijah Hinsdale Burritt (1794-1838) (editor) 
W.G. Evans (engraver) 

Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo e que possibilitam nossa mente a ir percebendo que existe mais, bem mais, entre o céu e a terra...; bem como percebendo que o caos, vagarosamente, vai se tornando Cosmos e sendo por nossa mente conscientizado.  

Quer dizer, nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

Janine Milward