segunda-feira, 24 de outubro de 2016

Marte cumprimentando Plutão e contando sobre a Missão New Horizons


Olá!

Ns céus estrelados do cair da noite,
Marte vem passeando sua luz intensa
na direção da belíssima constelação Sagittarius,
o Arqueiro Centauro, Sagitário,
e cumprimentando Plutão,
aquele que já foi rei,
mas que nunca perdeu sua majestade,
certamente.

Nesta Postagem, Caro Leitor,
encontre alguma informação
sobre Clyde Tombaugh,
o descobridor do então considerado Planeta, Plutão,
e que recentemente foi destronado
e nomeado enquanto planeta-anão;
sobre a Missão New Horizons
- a primeira missão a Plutão e ao Cinturão Kuiper;
sobre algumas das principais descobertas
em Plutão 
e sobre a extensão da Missão
direcionada ao Cinturão Kuiper
- em direção ao objeto descoberto
pelo Telescópio Hubble em 2014
e denominado de 2014 MU 69.

Este alvo é realmente interessante
porque suspeita-se que é composto
dos mesmos blocos construtores que formaram
todos os demais objetos do Cinturão Kuiper,
incluindo Plutão.
New Horizons deverá realizar seu flyby sobre este objeto
em 01 de janeiro de 2019.

Finalmente, Caro Leitor,
encontre a ilustração apresentando
a trajetória e a posição atual
da fantástica Missão New Horizons!

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward





Stellarium

Stellarium



Pluto




Plutão foi descoberto em 1930 por Clyde Tombaugh

e durante um longo tempo foi considerado um planeta.



No entanto, mais recentemente, 

Plutão passou a ser denominado

como planeta-anão 

- juntamente com outros objetos transnetunianos.

Eu sinceramente fiquei muito emocionada quando li:

"Suas cinzas estão a bordo da sonda espacial New Horizons

que busca informações detalhadas de Plutão e os confins do Sistema Solar"

Realmente penso que homenagem maior do que esta é sempre difícil de acontecer!
 .... mas aconteceu ...
e espero que Mr. Tombaugh tenha ficado bem satisfeito 
e um tanto refeito de sua tristeza 

- embora já não estivesse presente neste Planeta

quando seu tão querido planeta sendo rebaixado de posto 
e exposto a tantas polêmicas 
(talvez denominadas de 'para o bem da ciência').  




ClydeTombaugh2Domínio público


Clyde Tombaugh (Streator4 de Fevereiro de 1906 — Las Cruces17 de Janeiro de 1997) foi um astrônomo estado-unidense.
Trabalhava no Lowell Observatory quando em 1930 descobriu o planeta anão Plutão, descoberta que o tornou célebre. Também descobriu diversos asteróides e apelou para a pesquisa científica séria de objetos voadores não identificados.

Biografia

Clyde nasceu em 1906 em Streator, Illinois.

Morte

Clyde Tombaugh morreu numa sexta-feira a 17 de janeiro de 1997. Ele sofria de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva e estava a usar oxigênio nos últimos anos de vida. Suas cinzas estão a bordo da sonda espacial New Horizons, que busca informações detalhadas de Plutão e os confins do Sistema Solar1









USPS Pluto Stamps
In 2006, NASA placed a 29-cent 1991 ‘Pluto: Not Yet Explored’ stamp in the New Horizons spacecraft. In July of 2015 the spacecraft carried the stamp on its historic mission to Pluto and beyond. The souvenir sheet of four stamps contains two new stamps appearing twice. The first is an artist’s rendering of the New Horizons spacecraft and the second is an enhanced color image of Pluto taken near closest approach.
Credits: USPS/Antonio Alcalá/© 2016 USPS



Diagrams show New Horizons encounter with Pluto





<ahref="http://www.space.com/27989-new-horizons-pluto-mission-explained-infographic.html"><img alt="Diagrams show New Horizons encounter with Pluto" src="http://i.space.com/images/i/000/044/285/i02/new-horizons-pluto-flyby-150604a-02-copy.jpg?1433443963" /></a>
      <br /> Source <a href="http://www.space.com">SPACE.com: All about our solar system, outer space and exploration</a>.

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July 14, 2016
One Year Later: New Horizons’ Top 10 Discoveries at Pluto

Where were you at 7:49 a.m. Eastern Time on July 14, 2015?
Three billion miles from Earth, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, moving at speeds that would get it from New York to Los Angeles in about four minutes, was pointing cameras, spectrometers, and other sensors at Pluto and its moons – distant worlds that humankind had never seen up close – recording hundreds of pictures and other data that would forever change our view of the outer solar system.
“New Horizons not only completed the era of first reconnaissance of the planets, the mission has intrigued and inspired. Who knew that Pluto would have a heart?” said NASA’s Director of Planetary Science Jim Green. “Even today, New Horizons captures our imagination, rekindles our curiosity, and reminds us of what’s possible.”  
Pluto
NASA's New Horizons spacecraft captured this high-resolution enhanced color view of Pluto's moon Charon just before closest approach on July 14, 2015. Charon’s striking reddish north polar region is informally named Mordor Macula.
Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI
To say that New Horizons shook the foundation of planetary science is an understatement—discoveries already culled from the pictures and compositional and space environment readings have not only introduced us to the Pluto system, but hint at what awaits as scientists examine other worlds in the Kuiper Belt. New Horizons Principal Investigator Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado, lists the mission’s most surprising and amazing findings from Pluto (so far):
  • The complexity of Pluto and its satellites is far beyond what we expected.
  • The degree of current activity on Pluto’s surface and the youth of some surfaces on Pluto are simply astounding.
  • Pluto’s atmospheric hazes and lower-than-predicted atmospheric escape rate upended all of the pre-flyby models.
  • Charon’s enormous equatorial extensional tectonic belt hints at the freezing of a former water ice ocean inside Charon in the distant past. Other evidence found by New Horizons indicates Pluto could well have an internal water-ice ocean today.
  • All of Pluto’s moons that can be age-dated by surface craters have the same, ancient age—adding weight to the theory that they were formed together in a single collision between Pluto and another planet in the Kuiper Belt long ago.
  • Charon’s dark, red polar cap is unprecedented in the solar system and may be the result of atmospheric gases that escaped Pluto and then accreted on Charon’s surface.
  • Pluto’s vast 1,000-kilometer-wide heart-shaped nitrogen glacier (informally called Sputnik Planum) that New Horizons discovered is the largest known glacier in the solar system.
  • Pluto shows evidence of vast changes in atmospheric pressure and, possibly, past presence of running or standing liquid volatiles on its surface – something only seen elsewhere on Earth, Mars and Saturn’s moon Titan in our solar system.
  • The lack of additional Pluto satellites beyond what was discovered before New Horizons was unexpected.
  • Pluto’s atmosphere is blue. Who knew?
“It’s strange to think that only a year ago, we still had no real idea of what the Pluto system was like,” said Hal Weaver, New Horizons project scientist from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. “But it didn’t take long for us to realize Pluto was something special, and like nothing we ever could have expected. We’ve been astounded by the beauty and complexity of Pluto and its moons and we’re excited about the discoveries still to come.”
New Horizons is now nearly 300 million miles beyond Pluto, speeding to its next destination deeper into the Kuiper Belt, following NASA approval of an extended mission. About 80 percent of the data stored on the spacecraft’s recorders has been sent to Earth; transmission of the remainder will be complete by October.
This illustration of objects in the outer solar system shows Pluto and its next science target a Kuiper Belt object
Illustration of Pluto and its next science target, 2014 MU69, with the trajectory of New Horizons in yellow.
Credits: Alex Parker
“Our entire team is proud to have accomplished the first exploration of Pluto and the Kuiper Belt—something many of us had worked to achieve since the 1990s,” said Stern. “The data that New Horizons sent back about Pluto and its system of moons has revolutionized planetary science and inspired people of all ages across the world about space exploration. It’s been a real privilege to be able to do that, for which I’ll be forever indebted to our team and our nation.”
Last Updated: July 14, 2016
Editor: Bill Keeter








What's Next for NASA's New Horizons?



Publicado em 9 de fev de 2016
Pluto in a Minute: What's Next for NASA's New Horizons?

New Horizons’ Pluto flyby might be in the past but the mission is far from over. This is Pluto in a Minute.

Of course, Pluto was New Horizons’ primary target, but the mission was never intended to explore only one body in the outer solar system. In fact, the mission was designed to explore not just the Pluto-Charon system, but Pluto-Charon as well as multiple Kuiper Belt Objects. This is according to the 2003 decadal survey that called for a Pluto-Kuiper Belt explorer mission. This was a mission intended to explore the Pluto-Charon system and, to quote, “continue on to do reconnaissance of several additional Kuiper Belt Objects.”

So New Horizons always had a Kuiper Belt object as its secondary target. Last summer when New Horizons flew by Pluto there were two options for the future Kuiper Belt flyby and now the team has selected their target. The target the New Horizons team has settled on is called 2014 MU 69, and it was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2014.

The target is a really exciting one because the team suspects that it is made of the same building blocks that have formed all the Kuiper Belt planets and that includes Pluto. Now it must be said that this extended mission is pending approval by NASA. The New Horizons team will have to submit a formal proposal to the space agency later this year.

But New Horizons still has a long way to go. The spacecraft will fly by its Kuiper Belt object on January 1 of 2019, which means you’ve got plenty of time to start planning that Kuiper Belt Object themed New Year’s party for 2018.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mrVJL8x1g2I&index=2&list=PL5u7fD8rLzj22GAMKStDhK6nGvJ2GhEVy




Aug. 28, 2015
NASA’s New Horizons Team Selects Potential Kuiper Belt Flyby Target


NASA has selected the potential next destination for the New Horizons mission to visit after its historic July 14 flyby of the Pluto system. The destination is a small Kuiper Belt object (KBO) known as 2014 MU69 that orbits nearly a billion miles beyond Pluto.
New Horizons flyby
Artist's impression of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft encountering a Pluto-like object in the distant Kuiper Belt.
Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI/Alex Parker
This remote KBO was one of two identified as potential destinations and the one recommended to NASA by the New Horizons team.  Although NASA has selected 2014 MU69 as the target, as part of its normal review process the agency will conduct a detailed assessment before officially approving the mission extension to conduct additional science.

“Even as the New Horizon’s spacecraft speeds away from Pluto out into the Kuiper Belt, and the data from the exciting encounter with this new world is being streamed back to Earth, we are looking outward to the next destination for this intrepid explorer,” said John Grunsfeld, astronaut and chief of the NASA Science Mission Directorate at the agency headquarters in Washington. “While discussions whether to approve this extended mission will take place in the larger context of the planetary science portfolio, we expect it to be much less expensive than the prime mission while still providing new and exciting science.”

Like all NASA missions that have finished their main objective but seek to do more exploration, the New Horizons team must write a proposal to the agency to fund a KBO mission. That proposal – due in 2016 – will be evaluated by an independent team of experts before NASA can decide about the go-ahead.

Early target selection was important; the team needs to direct New Horizons toward the object this year in order to perform any extended mission with healthy fuel margins. New Horizons will perform a series of four maneuvers in late October and early November to set its course toward 2014 MU69 – nicknamed “PT1” (for “Potential Target 1”) – which it expects to reach on January 1, 2019. Any delays from those dates would cost precious fuel and add mission risk.

“2014 MU69 is a great choice because it is just the kind of ancient KBO, formed where it orbits now, that the Decadal Survey desired us to fly by,” said New Horizons Principal Investigator Alan Stern, of the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Boulder, Colorado. “Moreover, this KBO costs less fuel to reach [than other candidate targets], leaving more fuel for the flyby, for ancillary science, and greater fuel reserves to protect against the unforeseen.”
New Horizons was originally designed to fly beyond the Pluto system and explore additional Kuiper Belt objects. The spacecraft carries extra hydrazine fuel for a KBO flyby; its communications system is designed to work from far beyond Pluto; its power system is designed to operate for many more years; and its scientific instruments were designed to operate in light levels much lower than it will experience during the 2014 MU69 flyby.”
The 2003 National Academy of Sciences’ Planetary Decadal Survey (“New Frontiers in the Solar System”) strongly recommended that the first mission to the Kuiper Belt include flybys of Pluto and small KBOs, in order to sample the diversity of objects in that previously unexplored region of the solar system. The identification of PT1, which is in a completely different class of KBO than Pluto, potentially allows New Horizons to satisfy those goals.
But finding a suitable KBO flyby target was no easy task. Starting a search in 2011 using some of the largest ground-based telescopes on Earth, the New Horizons team found several dozen KBOs, but none were reachable within the fuel supply available aboard the spacecraft.
The powerful Hubble Space Telescope came to the rescue in summer 2014, discovering five objects, since narrowed to two, within New Horizons’ flight path. Scientists estimate that PT1 is just under 30 miles (about 45 kilometers) across; that’s more than 10 times larger and 1,000 times more massive than typical comets, like the one the Rosetta mission is now orbiting, but only about 0.5 to 1 percent of the size (and about 1/10,000th the mass) of Pluto. As such, PT1 is thought to be like the building blocks of Kuiper Belt planets such as Pluto.
New Horizons Path
Path of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft toward its next potential target, the Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69, nicknamed "PT1" (for "Potential Target 1") by the New Horizons team. NASA must approve any New Horizons extended mission to explore a KBO.
Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI/Alex Parker
Unlike asteroids, KBOs have been heated only slightly by the Sun, and are thought to represent a well preserved, deep-freeze sample of what the outer solar system was like following its birth 4.6 billion years ago.
“There’s so much that we can learn from close-up spacecraft observations that we’ll never learn from Earth, as the Pluto flyby demonstrated so spectacularly,” said New Horizons science team member John Spencer, also of SwRI. “The detailed images and other data that New Horizons could obtain from a KBO flyby will revolutionize our understanding of the Kuiper Belt and KBOs.”
The New Horizons spacecraft – currently 3 billion miles [4.9 billion kilometers] from Earth – is just starting to transmit the bulk of the images and other data, stored on its digital recorders, from its historic July encounter with the Pluto system. The spacecraft is healthy and operating normally.

New Horizons is part of NASA’s New Frontiers Program, managed by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., designed, built, and operates the New Horizons spacecraft and manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. SwRI leads the science mission, payload operations, and encounter science planning.
Last Updated: Aug. 28, 2015
Editor: Tricia Talbert





WHERE IS NEW HORIZONS NOW?




http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/posters.php

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward