quarta-feira, 16 de novembro de 2016

Ao cair da noite, observe Orion chegando no horizonte leste e Escorpião escondendo-se no horizonte oeste


Caro Leitor,
por alguns bons momentos
sempre poderemos observar
os céus estrelados
ainda antes da chegada da Lua
já murchando visivelmente
e também mais e mais tardia
a cada noite.

Quando a noite cai,
vamos encontrar a constelação do Escorpião
já escondendo-se por detrás do horizonte oeste
(e carregando consigo Saturno, em Ophiucus, o Serpentário),
enquanto o Gigante Caçador, Orion,
começa a surgir por detrás do horizonte leste.

Nossa Postagem de hoje
vem lhe levar a observar
o fato de que as constelações
Orion, o Gigante Caçador,
e Scorpius, o Escorpião,
acabam sempre
uma entrando em cena
no horizonte leste
e outra saindo de cena
no horizonte oeste.

E este fato
acaba sendo comentado 
e explicado miticamente,
é claro.

Dessa forma,
Caro Leitor,
encontre nesta Postagem
alguma informação mítica
sobre a separação nos céus estrelados
entre as constelações Orion e Escorpião
bem como encontre
vários comentários
realizados por R. H. Allen
sobre o Gigante Caçador.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward


Quando o Gigante Caçador Órion 
entra em cena no horizonte Leste,
o Escorpião despede-se da cena, 
caindo no horizonte Oeste.

Diz a lenda que Órion era um gigante caçador, amado por Ártemis, com quem quase se casou. O irmão de Artemis, Apolo, por sua vez, se aborrecia com tal aproximação entre os dois, chegando a censurar diversas vezes sem nunca obter resultado. Certo dia Apolo teve a oportunidade de se ver livre de seus aborrecimentos, percebendo que Órion vadeava pelo mar apenas com a cabeça fora d’água desafiou sua irmã, outra exímia caçadora, a acertar o alvo que distante se movia.

Impecável em sua pontaria ela atingiu em cheio seu amado, que fugia de um escorpião que Apolo havia enviado para matá-lo. O corpo, já moribundo, de Órion foi conduzido à praia pelas ondas do mar. Percebendo o engano que havia cometido, Artemis, em meio às lágrimas, pediu para Zeus colocar Órion e o escorpião entre as estrelas: o gigante trajado com um cinto, uma pele de leão, armado de uma espada e de sua clava, acompanhado por Sírius, seu cão, fugindo de seu inimigo escorpião.(Sírius ou Sírio é a estrela mais brilhante do céu e encontra-se na constelação Cão Maior, perto da constelação de Órion ou Orionte).

Outra versão é a de que Órion tentou violentar a deusa Ártemis. A fim de castigá-lo, Ártemis mandou um escorpião gigantesco morder-lhe o calcanhar, matando-o. Pelo serviço prestado à deusa, o escorpião foi transformado em constelação, simbolizando a raiva de Artemis por ter sido ameaçada de estupro ou, segundo algumas versões, por ter tido sua oferta afetiva e sexual rejeitada. .

Leia muito mais informações
sobre o Mito
de Órion e do Escorpião



Winter Sky & Summer Sky


I was thought that Orion and Scorpius where never visible together in the sky, well, I saw them while I was shooting some astrophotos during the equinox night time at 20:03 on 2015/03/21, set the camera and I capture both smile emoticon

The Panorama Image shows Scorpius and Orion, both over the horizon as this only happens for the equinox's skies. I remembered a -mithology story about both constellations I copy pasted a version of the story plus I did some workshops with kids and we used this story for some of the workshops.

Orion and Scorpius Scorpius: Orion was a skilled hunter. He was also boastful, asserting that no animal alive could harm him. Juno, wife of Jupiter, disliked mortal men, especially boastful men, so she decided to teach Orion a lesson. She placed a scorpion on the path that Orion took daily to his hunting grounds. As you might expect, Orion trod upon the scorpion, which stung him and killed him. But the story does not end here, for the gods were continuously quarreling among themselves. Diana, goddess of the moon and the hunt, fancied Orion, the greatest mortal hunter. They had often hunted together at night, neglecting her lunar duties (hence the dark nights near the new moon). She insisted that his likeness be memorialized in the sky, with his hunting dogs (Canis Major and Canis Minor) at his feet, where all could see it and remember his prowess. This did not please Juno, who insisted upon similar treatment for the Scorpion. Was it not a mightier hunter to slay the great Orion? Jupiter agreed to similarly honor the Scorpion, but in one of his wisest decisions placed the two constellations on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, where they cannot bother each other.

Equinox panorama - winter and summer skies together
Copyrights: Sergio Montúfar

The text is in the public domain.

[image ALT: a blank space]

While far Orion o'er the waves did walk
That flow among the isles.
Shelley's The Revolt of Islam.
Orion with his glittering belt and sword
Gilded since time has been, while time shall be.
.     .     .     .
Thou splendid soulless warrior! What to thee,
Marching along the bloodless fields, are we!
Lucy Larcom's Orion.
Orion, the Giant, Hunter, and Warrior
admired in all historic ages as the most strikingly brilliant of the stellar groups, lies partly within the Milky Way, extending on both sides of the p304celestial equator entirely south of the ecliptic, and so is visible from every part of the globe.

With Theban Greeks of Corinna's time, about the year 490 before our era, it was Ὠαρίων, the initial letter having taken the place of the ancient digamma, ϝ, which, pronounced somewhat like the letter W, rendered the early word akin to our Warrior. Corinna's pupil Pindar followed inὨαριώνειος, but by the time of Euripides the present Ὠρίων prevailed, and we see it thus in Polymestor's words in the Ἐκάβη of 425 B.C.:
through the ether to the lofty ceiling,
Where Orion and Seirios dart from their eyes
The flaming rays of fire.
Catullus transcribed Oarion from Pindar, shortened to Arion, and sometimes changed to Aorion; but the much later Argion, attributed to Firmicus,a was for Procyon, probably from Ἀργος, the faithful dog of Ulixes.

The derivation of the word has been in doubt, but Brown refers it to the Akkadian Uru‑Anna,1 the Light of Heaven, originally applied to the sun, as Uru‑ki, the Light of Earth, was to the moon; so that our title may have come into Greek mythology and astronomy from the Euphrates. The Οὐρίον, Οὐρον, or Ὑριών of the Hyriean, or Byrsaean, story, the Urion of the original Alfonsine Tables, graphically explained by Minsheu, is in no sense an acceptable title, although Hyginus and Ovid vouched for it, thus showing its currency in their day. Caesius' derivation from Ὤρα, as if marking the Seasons, seems fanciful.

At one time it was Ἀλετροπόδιον, found in the Uranologia of Petavius of the 16th century, which Ideler said should be Ἀλεκτροπόδιον, Cock's Foot, likening the constellation to a Strutting Cock; but Brown goes back to Ἀλη, Roaming, and so reads it Ἀλητροπόδιον, the Foot-Turning Wanderer, mythologically recorded as roaming in his blindness till miraculously restored to side by viewing the rising sun.

The Boeotians, according to Strabo, fellow-countrymen of the earthly Orion, called his stars Κανδάων, their alternative title for Ἄρης, the god of war, well agreeing with, perhaps originating, the Greek conception of the Warrior.
Ovid said that the constellation was Comesque Boötae; and some authors asserted that Orion never set, an idea possibly coming from the confusion in name with Boötes already alluded to; although even as to that constellation the assertion would not have been strictly correct. Matthew Arnold similarly wrote in his Sohrab and Rustum:
p305the northern Bear,
Who from her frozen height with jealous eye
Confronts the Dog and Hunter in the South.
Dianae Comes, and Amasius, Companion, and Lover of Diana, were other titles, the Hero, after his death from the Scorpion's sting inflicted for his boastfulness, having been located by Jove in his present position, at the request of the goddess, that he might escape in the west when his slayer, the Scorpion, rose in the east, — as Aratos said:
When the Scorpion comes
Orion flies to utmost end of earth.
Thompson sees in this alternate rising and setting of these two sky figures an astronomic explanation of the symbolism in classic ornithology of the mutual pursuit and flight of Haliaëtos and Keiris, the Sea Eagle and Kingfisher, compared in the poem Ciris to these opposed constellations.

In Horace's Odes the constellation is termed pronus; and Tennyson had
Great Orion sloping slowly to the west,
which, with the rest of the beautiful opening passage, adds much to the charm of his Locksley Hall.

Homer, who made but a single allusion in the Iliad to this constellation, followed by a parallel passage in the Odyssey [XI.310], wrote of "the might of huge Orion," and described the earthly hero as the "Illustrious Orion, the tallest and most beautiful of men, — even than the Aloidae," adjectives all well applied to our stellar figure; Hesiod said:
When strong Orion chaces to the deep the Virgin stars;
Pindar, that he was of monstrous size; as did Manilius in his Magna pars maxima coeli; and nearly all authors, as well as illustrators, have thus described Orion, and as an armed warrior.b In the Ἐκάβη we read:
with his glittering sword Orion arm'd;
in Ovid's works, of ensiger Orion; in Lucan's, of ensifer; and Vergil has a fine passage in the Aeneid quaintly translated in 1513 by the "Scottis" Gavin Douglas, where Palinurus
Of every sterne the twynkling notis he
That in the still hevin move cours we se,
Arthurys house, and Hyades betaikning rane,
Watling strete,c the Horne and the Charlewane,
The fiers Orion with his goldin glave;
p306these last a very liberal translation of the much quoted armatumque auro. But later on in the voyage, when the fleet was off Capreae, the old pilot, in his astronomical enthusiasm dum sidera servat, lost his balance, and tumbled overboard.

The constellation's stormy character appeared in early Hindu, and perhaps even in earlier Euphratean days, and is seen everywhere among classical writers with allusions to its direful influence. Vergil termed it aquosus, nimbosus, and saevus; Horace, tristis and nautis infestus, Pliny,horridus sideribus; and the Latin sailors had a favorite saying, Fallit saepissime nautas Orion. Polybios, the Greek historian of the second century before Christ, attributed the loss of the Roman squadron in the first Punic war to its having sailed just after "the rising of Orion"; Hesiod long before wrote of this same rising:
then the winds war aloud,
And veil the ocean with a sable cloud:
Then round the bark, already haul'd on shore,
Lay stones, to fix her when the tempests roar;
and Milton, in Paradise Lost:
when with fierce winds Orion arm'd
Hath vex'd the Red-sea coast, whose waves o'erthrew
Busiris and his Memphian chivalry.
Many classical authors variously alluded to it as a calendar sign, for its morning rising indicated the beginning of summer, when, as we find in the Works and Days, the husbandman was instructed to
Forget not, when Orion first appears,
To make your servants thresh the sacred ears;
his midnight rising marked the season of grape-gathering; and his evening appearance the approach of winter and its attendant storms: an opinion that prevailed as late as the 17th century, for in the Geneva Bible, familiarly known as the Breeches Bible, the marginal reading in the Book of Job, xxxviii.31, is "which starre bringeth in winter." Plautus, Varro, and others called the constellation Jugula and Jugulae, the Joined, referring to the umeri, the two bright stars in the shoulders, as if connected by the jugulum, or collar‑bone. Such, at least, is the generally received derivation, but Buttman claimed it as from jugulare, and hence the Slayer, a fitting title for the Warrior.

The Syrians knew it as Gabbārā;d the Arabians, as Al Jabbār, both signifying "the Giant," Γίγας with Ptolemy, — and in Latin days occasionallyGigas; p307the Arabian word gradually being turned into Algebra, Algebaro, and especially in poetry, Algebar, which Chilmead gave as Algibbar.

In early Arabia Orion was Al Jauzah, a word also used for stars in Gemini, and much, but not satisfactorily, discussed as to its derivation and meaning in its stellar connection. It is often translated Giant, but erroneously, for it, at first, had no personal signification. Originally it was the term used for a black sheep with a white spot in the middle of the body, and thus may have become the designation for the middle figure of the heavens, which from its preëminent brilliancy always has been a centre of attraction. Some think that the Belt stars, δ, ε, ζ, known to the Arabs as the Golden Nuts, first bore the name Jauzah, either from another meaning of that word, — Walnut, — or because they lay in the centre of the splendid quadrangle formed by α, β, γ, and κ; or from their position on the equator, the great central circle; the title subsequently passing to the whole figure. Grotius adopted the first of these derivations, quoting from Festus the passage quasi nux juglans, that a lesser light, Robert Hues, thus enlarged upon:
Now Geuze signifieth a Wall-nut; and perhaps they allude herein to the Latine word Jugula, by which name Festus calleth Orion; because he is greater than any of the other Constellations, as a Wall-nut is bigger then any other kinde of nut.

In mediaeval as well as in later astronomy, the original appears in degenerate forms, such as Elgeuze, Geuze, Jeuze, and the Geuzazguar of Grotius.

Al Sufi's story of the feminine Jauzah has been noticed at the star Canopus and under Canis Minor.

Hyde quoted from an Arabian astronomer, Al Babādur, the Strong One, as a popular term for the constellation. Sugia and Asugia were thought by Scaliger to be corruptions of the Arabs' Al Shujāʽ, the Snake, applied to Orion in the sense of Audax, Bellator and Bellatrix, Fortis andFortissimus, Furiosus and Sublimatus, and all proper names for it in Bayer's and other early astronomical works, Chilmead translating Asugia as "the Madman." Similar titles at one time obtained for Hydra.

Al Firuzabadi's Al Nusu may be equivalent to the Nasa, a Line, or Row, applied to the Belt stars, but there signifying a String of Pearls.

Niphla, attributed to Chaldaea, has not been confirmed by modern scholars.

In Egypt, as elsewhere, Orion was of course prominent, especially so in the square zodiac of Denderah, as Horuse in a boat surmounted by stars, followed by Sirius, shown as a cow, also in a boat; and nearly three thousand years previously had been sculptured on the walls of the recently discovered step-temple of Saḳḳara, and in the great Ramesseum of Thebes about 328B.C. as Sahu. This twice appears in the Book of the Dead:
p308The shoulders of the constellation Sahu;
I see the motion of the holy constellation Sahu.
A similar title, but of Akkad origin, appeared for Capricornus. Egyptian mythology laid to rest in this constellation the soul of Osiris, as it did in the star Sirius that of Isis; and, again, in the Book of the Dead we read:
The Osiris N is the constellation Orion;
in this connection, Orion was known as Smati-Osiris, the Barley God.
The Giant generally has been represented with back turned toward us and face in profile, armed with club, or sword, and protected by his shield, or, as Longfellow wrote,
on his arm the lion's hide
Scatters across the midnight air
The golden radiance of its hair.
Dürer drew him facing the Bull, whose attack he is warding off; but the Leyden Manuscript has a lightly clad youth with a short, curved staff in the right hand, and the Hare in the background.

The head is marked by λ, φ1, and φ2, the stars α and γ pointing out the shoulders, β and κ the left foot and right knee. But Sir John Herschel observed from southern latitudes that the inverted view of the constellation well represents a human figure; the stars that we imagine the shoulders appearing for the knees, Rigel forming the head, and Cursa of Eridanus, one of the shoulders.

In astrology the constellation was Hyreides, Bayer's Hyriades, from Ovid's allusion to it as Hyriea proles, thus recalling the fabled origin from the bull's hide still marked out in the sky. This, formerly depicted as a shield of rawhide, is now figured as a lion's skin; and it perhaps was this Hyriean story that gave the stellar Orion the astrological reputation, recorded by Thomas Hood, of being "the verie cutthrote of cattle";f at all events, it certainly gave rise to the τρίπατρος and Tripater, applied to him

Saturnus has been another title, but its connection here I cannot learn, although I hazard the guess that as this divinity was the sun-god of the Phoenicians, his name might naturally be used for Uruanna-Orion, the sun-god of the Akkadians.
Anterior to much of this, we find in the various versions of the Book of Job and Amos the word Orion for the original Hebrew word Ksīl, literally signifying "Foolish," "Impious," "Inconstant," or "Self-confident." p309This perhaps is etymologically connected with Kislev, the name for the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar, the tempestuous November-December. Julius Fürst considered this Kislev an early title for Orion. The epithet "Inconstant" has fancifully been referred to the storms usual at his rising.

The Ksīlīm of Isaiah xiii.10, rendered "constellations" in some versions, is also thought to refer to it and other prominent sky figures; in fact, Cheyne translates the word as "the Orions" in the Polychrome Bible; while Rahab, in the Revised Version of the Book of Job, ix.13, — the "proud helpers" in the Authorized, — is referred by Ewald, Renan, and others to this, — possibly to some other group of stars, — with the same significations as those of Ksīl, or perhaps "Arrogance," "Rebellion," "Strength," or "Violence."

Later on the Jews called Orion Gibbōr, the Giant, considered as Nimrod bound to the sky for rebellion against Jehovah, whence perhaps came the Bands, or Bonds, of Orion, which some say should be Cords, or a Girdle; but the conception of Nimrod as "the mighty Hunter before the Lord," at least in the ordinary sense of that word, is erroneous, for the original, according to universal Eastern tradition, signifies a Lurking Enemy, or a Hunter of men rather than of beasts. This idea may have led to a Latin title, Venator, for the stellar Orion.

But, relative to the renderings of biblical words supposed to refer to sky groups, the Reverend Doctor Adam Clarke wrote in his Commentary
that Aish has been generally understood to signify the Great Bear; Kesil Orion; and Kimah the Pleiades, may be seen everywhere; but that they do signify these constellations is perfectly uncertain. We have only conjectures concerning their meaning.
.     .     .     .     .     .
As to the Hebrew words, they might as well have been applied to any of the other constellations of heaven; indeed, it does not appear that constellations at all are meant.
The discordance between the various renderings would indicate the probable correctness of these comments, and that we are in no respect assured as to the identification of Bible star‑names. Yet it is worth noting that the three constellations adopted by the translators of Book of Job and of Amos in the Revised Version fitly represent the cardinal points of the sky: the Bear in the north, Orion in the south, and the Pleiades rising and setting in the east and west.

In the Hindu Brahmanas Orion is personified as Praja-pāti,2 under the form of a stag, Mriga, in pursuit of his own daughter, the beautiful roe Rohini, our Aldebaran. In his unnatural chase he was transfixed by the p310three-jointed arrow — the Belt stars — shot by the avenging Hunter, Sirius, which even now is seen sticking in his body. This hero was the father of twenty-seven daughters, the wives of King Soma, the Moon, with whom the latter equally divided his time, thus referring to the nakshatras.

The Chinese made up their 4th sieu from the seven conspicuous stars in the shoulders, belt, and knees of Orion, with the title Shen, or Tsan, Three Side by Side, anciently Sal, which may have originated from the Belt having at first alone formed the sieu. Indeed, the lunar asterism was mentioned in the She King as the Three Stars. δ was its determinant; but it overlapped the corresponding nakshatra, although entirely district from the 4th manzil in the feet of the Twins. Orion was worshiped in the China during the thousand years before our ear as Shen, or Shï Ch'en, from the moon station; but it also was known as the White Tiger, a title taken from the adjacent Taurus.

The Khorasmians adopted Orion's stars as a figure of their zodiac in place of Gemini.

The early Irish called it Caomai, the Armed King; the Norsemen, Orwandil; and the Old Saxons, Ebuðrung, or Ebiðring, — words that Grimm thought connected with Iringe, or Iuwaring, of the Milky Way.g

Caesius cited the singular title Ragulon, perhaps from Al Rijl, the Arabic designation for the star β, but he made this the equivalent of the LatinVir, the Man par excellence, the Hero; and suggested that Orion represented Jacob wrestling with the angel; or Joshua, the Hebrew warrior; but Julius Schiller, that it was Saint Joseph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin. Weigel figured it as the Roman Two-headed Eagle; and De Rheita, of 1643, found somewhere among its stars Christ's Seamless Coat and a Chalice; but he was addicted to such discoveries.

Argelander has 115 stars here; Heis, 136; and Gould, 186; while the whole is as rich in wonderful telescopic objects as it is glorious to the casual observer. Flammarion calls it the California of the sky.

Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas
 – As Constelações - 
são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo
 e que possibilitam nossa mente a ir percebendo 
que existe mais, bem mais, 
entre o céu e a terra 
bem como percebendo que o caos, 
 vai se tornando Cosmos e sendo por nossa mente conscientizado.  

Quer dizer, 
nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

Janine Milward