domingo, 25 de dezembro de 2016

Cassiopeia, a Rainha Sentada (e vaidosa), esposa de Cepheus, Rei da Etiópia, mãe de Andromeda, a Princesa Acorrentada


Olá,

Caro Leitor,
estivemos comentando um tantinho
sobre cada uma das constelações
constantes do Mito de Andromeda e Perseus.

Deixamos a vaidosa Rainha Cassiopeia
entrar em cena por último
- ainda outro castigo além daquele
de esta personagem ter sido levada aos céus
sentada para sempre de cabeça para baixo
e rodando em torno do polo norte.

Sendo assim, esta constelação
acaba não sendo bem visível
para nós, moradores do hemisfério sul.
Porém, em lugares mais ao norte do Brasil
- como Manaus, capital do Estado do Amazonas 
(e para onde as Ilustrações Stellarium figuram) -,
a visão do famoso W formado por estrelas
traduz a Rainha Cassiopeia,
sem dúvida alguma.

As estrelas que compõem o W ou M em Cassiopéia
são formadas por Schedir, Caph, Cih, Ksora e Segin
- estrelas alpha, beta, gamma, delta e epsilon Cassiopeiae,
respectivamente.

Em Cassiopeia,
encontramos Objetos Celestes
realmente encantadores
e os meus preferidos
são Coração e Alma
- IC 1805 E IC 1848,
duas maravilhosas nebulosas de emissão.

É interessante pensarmos
que o Mito nos apresenta uma Rainha
quase sem coração ou alma...,
e, no entanto,
esses objetos celestes
repousam na direção deste agrupamento estelar.

Ainda nesta Postagem,
Caro Leitor,
estaremos comentando um tantinho
sobre os Objetos Messier
acolhidos por Cassiopeia
M52 e M103.



Cassiopeia e Cepheus são constelações bem ao norte

e são os pais de Andromeda.
No entanto, não encontramos Objetos Messier em Cepheus,
somente em Cassiopeia, a Rainha Sentada
- apesar de M52 situar-se na direção fronteiriça
entre essas duas constelações.



Bons Estudos e Boa Observação!




Com um abraço estrelado,

Janine Milward




Stellarium

Stellarium


Historical Map of Cassiopeia
     A portion of Bayer's 1603 map and drawing of Cassiopeia, showing her as a seated female figure. The very bright star to the left of the figure is Tycho's supernova of 1572, which though having faded away, remained a memorable object in 1603. (Image rotated to a vertical position relative to the original horizontal plates; from the USNO copy of the 1661 edition of Bayer's Uranometria)
Portion of Bayer's Uranometria showing Cassiopeia


Mario Jaci Monteiro - As Constelações, Cartas Celestes






 CASSIOPEIA, 
A MULHER SENTADA


Posicionamento:
Ascensão Reta 22h56m / 3h36m   Declinação  +46o.4  /  +77o.5


Mito:
Cassiopéia era a esposa do rei Cefeus, da Etiópia, e mãe de Andrômeda.  
Ambas eram belíssimas, mas alguns dizem que Cassiopéia era muitíssimo invejosa da beleza de sua filha...  
e espalhou o boato que esta era ainda mais bela do que as Nereidas.  

Um monstro marinho, Cetus, a Baleia, foi então enviado por Netuno 
ou para devastar todo o país 
ou somente para devorar Andrômeda, 
que seria acorrentada a uma rocha.  

Sabemos que Perseus salvou Andrômeda e com ela se casou.  

Mas por todos esses acontecimentos, 
Cassiopéia foi condenada a se sentar em seu trono 
e rodear o pólo norte de cabeça para baixo, 
como um lição de humildade.


Fronteiras:
A constelação de Cassiopéia ssitua-se entre Cepheus, Andrômeda, Perseus e Camelopardalis


- 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão 

Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986








Philippe La Hire, Planisphere celeste, 1705




AS CONSTELAÇÕES QUE FAZEM PARTE DO MITO DE ANDROMEDA E PERSEUS:


A Constelação de CETUSa Baleia ou Monstro Marinho
Cetus representa o monstro marinho enviado por Netuno para devorar Andrômeda. 

A Constelação de Pegasus, o Cavalo Alado
Dizem que Pegasus nasceu a partir do sangue da Medusa quando Perseus cortou fora sua cabeça.  Mais tarde, o cavalo foi domado e cavalgado por Bellerofonte que se cansou das questões pertinentes à Terra e tentou voar em direção aos céus porém caiu.  Pegasus, no entanto, continuou sua cavalgada, entrando no céu e tomando seu lugar entre as estrelas.

A Constelação de Cassiopeia, a Rainha Invejosa, a Mulher Sentada
Andrômeda era a esposa do rei Cefeus, da Etiópia, e mãe de Andrômeda.  Ambas eram belíssimas mas alguns dizem que Cassiopéia era muitíssimo invejosa da beleza de sua filha...  e espalhou o boato que esta era ainda mais bela do que as Nereidas.  Um monstro marinho, Cetus, a Baleia, foi então enviado por Netuno ou para devastar todo o país ou somente para devorar Andrômeda, que seria acorrentada a uma rocha.  Sabemos que Perseus salvou Andrômeda e com ela se casou.  Mas por todos esses acontecimentos, Cassiopeia foi condenada a se sentar em seu trono e rodear o pólo norte de cabeça para baixo, como um lição de humildade.

A constelação de Perseuso Herói e Campeão
Perseus, era filho de júpiter e Danae, portanto, um semideus a quem Mercúrio deu de presente espada, capa e asas nos pés e também o escudo pertencente à Minerva.  O herói matou a Medusa ao cortar sua cabeça e mais tarde, salvou Andrômeda, com quem se casou e teve alguns filhos.  Quando retornava para sua casa, ele matou acidentalmente seu próprio avô e endoideceu de tanta dor, mas Júpiter apiedou-se dele e o colocou entre as estrelas.

A Constelação de Cefeus, o pai de Andrômeda 
Cefeus, rei da Etiópia, foi levado aos céus  conjuntamente com sua esposa, Cassiopeia, e sua filha Andrômeda em comemoração sobre os eventos e realizações atuados por Perseus.

A constelação de Andromeda, a Princesa Acorrentada
Andrômeda era a filha de Cefeus,  rei da Etiópia, e de Cassiopeia.  Por causa dos boatos espalhados por Cassiopéia de que a beleza de Andrômeda superava a das Nereidas, Netuno enviou um mostro marinho, Cetus, a Baleia, para devastar aquele país.  Porém, Netuno fez a promessa de libertar o país dessa devastação caso Andromeda fosse oferecida em sacrifício, sendo acorrentada a uma rocha, para ser devorada pelo monstro marinho.  No entanto, Perseus soube desse caso e salvou Andrômeda de seu tormento matando o monstro e o transformando em pedra ao lhe mostrar a cara da Medusa.  Ambos, Perseus e Andrômeda, alçaram vôo alto, sobre Pegasus, o cavalo alado, e se dirigiram para o altar onde se casaram.


Estrelas e objetos interessantes, em Cassiopéia:


As estrelas que compõem o W ou M em Cassiopéia
são formadas por Schedir, Caph, Cih, Ksora e Segin


Schedir - Alpha Cassiopeae
Ascensão Reta 00h39,4m - Declinação +56o 25
Magnitude visual 2,47 - Distância: 150 anos-luz
O Peito, nome árabe - Schedar



Caph - Beta Cassiopeae
A Palma da Mão



Ruchbah - Delta CassiopeaE

O Joelho, nome árabe que define a posição da estrela no corpo da constelação de Cassiopéia.



Achid - Eta Cassiopea - Estrela Dupla
Ascensão Reta 00h46m         Declinação +57o.33     Magnitude 3,5 e 7,5     
Ângulo de Posição 307o.1       Distância entre estrelas 11”,99



Cih - Gamma Cassiopeiae - Estrela variável
Alcançou sua magnitude máxima em 1937 quando ejetou um envelope gasoso.  Então, começou a declinar em magnitude.


R Cassiopeae - Estrela Variável
Ascensão Reta 23h55m  Declinação +51o.07
Magnitude max 4,8 - min 13,6  Período 426,3



R Cassiopeiae - Estrela Variável
Ascensão Reta 23h55m        Declinação +51o.07
Magnitudes:  Max 4,8     Min  13,6     Período 426,3
Tipo PLG     Espectro M7e


Ksora

Segin


Marfak - Teta Cassiopeiae
Cotovelo, designação proveniente do árab e Al Marfik




- 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão 
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986




Cassiopeia
http://www.aradergalleries.com/detail.php?id=1733
Johann Bayer — Cassiopeia



NGC 291 - Nebulosa
NGC 281 situa-se a cerca de 10 mil anos-luz na constelação de Cassiopéia e é nomeada de Nebulosa Pacman - esculpida em colunas de estrelas quentes que, se sobreviverem por um bom tempo, suas estruturas de poeira podem bem formar berços para futuras estrelas.


NGC 185 
Tipo dEO    Ascensão Reta 00h39m.0  Declinação +48o.20
Dimensões 12x10  Notas: Companheira distante de M31


NGC 281 - Aglomerado Aberto
Ascensão Reta 00h52m8  Declinação +56o.37
Dimensões 4.0  Notas: responde ao filtro UHC


NGC 457 - Aglomerado Aberto
Ascensão Reta 01h46m0  Declinação +58o.20
Dimensões 13.0   Notas: Rico


NGC 663 - Aglomerado Aberto
Ascensão Reta 01h46m0  Declinação +61o.15
Dimensões 16.0  Notas:  NGC 654 e NGC 659 encontram-se na proximidade


NGC 7789 - Aglomerado Aberto
Ascensão Reta 23h57m0  Declinação +56o.44
Dimensões 16.0  Notas: muito rico



- 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão 
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986




M52   E  M103,
OBJETOS MESSIER
NA DIREÇÃO DA CONSTELAÇÃO CASSIOPEIA



Stellarium


Messier 52

Open Cluster M52 (NGC 7654), type 'e', in Cassiopeia
[m52.jpg]
Right Ascension23 : 24.2 (h:m)
Declination+61 : 35 (deg:m)
Distance5.0 (kly)
Visual Brightness7.3 (mag) 
Apparent Dimension13.0 (arc min)



Discovered 1774 by Charles Messier.

Messier 52 (M52, NGC 7654) is a fine open cluster located in a rich Milky Way field. It is one of the rich clusters for which amateur Jeff Bondono has proposed the name "salt and pepper" clusters.
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LEIA MAIS

acessando





Stellarium



Messier 52 (NGC 7654) é um aglomerado estelar aberto localizado na constelação de Cassiopeia a 5 000 anos-luz da Terra. Foi descoberto por Charles Messier em 1774. Possui um diâmetro de 19 anos-luz e uma idade estimada em 35 milhões de anos. Sua estrela mais brilhante é uma gigante de classe F9, que tem uma magnitude de 7,77.

Descoberto porCharles Messier
Data1774
Dados observacionais (J2000)
ConstelaçãoCassiopeia
Asc. reta23h 24,2m
Declinação61° 35′
Distância5000 anos-luz (1530 pc)
Magnit. apar.7,3
Dimensões13,0 minutos de arco
Características físicas
Raio9,5 anos-luz
Idade estimada35 milhões de anos
Outras denominações
M52, NGC 7654
Messier 52
Cassiopeia constellation map.png





M52 - NGC 7654 - Aglomerado Aberto
Um aglomerado aberto preenchido de estrelas.

NGC 7635 - Nebulosa Bolha
Esta nebulosa foi assim designada em função do arco gasoso incomum que parece com uma imensa bolha.  Deve ser uma atípica nebulosa planetária ou uma remanescente de um estrela nova anterior.
Envolvida num complexo de gás e poeira interestelares e carregada pelo vento de uma estrela massiva tipo O, a Nebulosa da Bolha, Bubble Nebula, também conhecida como NGC 7635, possui meros 10 anos-luz de largura.  No entanto, existe uma composição cósmica que balanceia bem harmoniosamente a Nebulosa Bolha com o aglomerado aberto M52. M52 é um aglomerado aberto rico composto de milhares de estrelas, numa largura de 25 anos-luz. A distância da Nebulosa Bolha e o complexo de nuvens associado mede-se em cerca de 11 mil anos-luz, enquanto o aglomerado aberto M52 situa-se a 5 mil anos-luz.



- 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão 
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986


Object Names: Bubble Nebula, NGC 7635






NGC 7635, também conhecida de Nebulosa da BolhaShaspless 162 e Caldwell 11 é uma nebulosa de emissão localizada na constelação deCassiopeia a 11 anos luz da Terra. A bolha que caracteriza essa nebulosa é criada pelo forte vento estelas que provem de uma fonte de quente, que é uma estrela jovem (SAO 20575) de 8,7 magnitude e de massa solar de 15 ± 5. Essa nebulosa esta perto de uma grande nuvem molecular. A estrela jovem que esta em seu centro brilha e esta nebulosa emite o brilho da estrela. Foi descoberto em 1787 por Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel.

Ficheiro:NGC 7635 (vivid).jpg
Autor

Object Names: Bubble Nebula, NGC 7635
Image Type: Astronomical
Credit: NASA, Donald Walter (South Carolina State University), Paul Scowen and Brian Moore (Arizona State University)
Research Team: Donald Walter (South Carolina State University), Paul Scowen, Jeff Hester, Brian Moore (Arizona State University), Reggie Dufour, Patrick Hartigan and Brent Buckalew (Rice University).
Funding: Space Telescope Science InstituteNASA MUSPIN and NASA URC.


https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap160422.html
2016 April 22
See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.
NGC 7635: The Bubble Nebula 
Image Credit: NASAESAHubble Heritage Team (STScI / AURA
Explanation: Blown by the wind from a massive star, this interstellar apparition has a surprisingly familiar shape. Cataloged as NGC 7635, it is also known simply as The Bubble Nebula. Although it looks delicate, the 7 light-year diameter bubble offers evidence of violent processes at work. Above and left of the Bubble's center is a hot, O-type star, several hundred thousand times more luminous and around 45 times more massive than the Sun. A fierce stellar wind and intense radiation from that star has blasted out the structure of glowing gas against denser material in a surrounding molecular cloud. The intriguing Bubble Nebula and associated cloud complex lie a mere 7,100 light-years away toward the boastful constellation Cassiopeia. This sharp, tantalizing view of the cosmic bubble is a composite of Hubble Space Telescope image data from 2016, released to celebrate the 26th anniversary of Hubble's launch.














Stellarium




Messier 103

Open Cluster M103 (NGC 581), type 'd', in Cassiopeia
[m103.jpg]
Right Ascension01 : 33.2 (h:m)
Declination+60 : 42 (deg:m)
Distance8.5 (kly)
Visual Brightness7.4 (mag) 
Apparent Dimension6.0 (arc min)

Discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1781.

Open cluster Messier 103 (M103, NGC 581) is one of the "latest additions" (together with M101 and 102) to his catalog, which Charles Messier included from Pierre Méchain's report, but had no occasion and no time to observe before publication.
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LEIA MAIS

acessando

Programa Stellarium

Messier 103 (também conhecido como M103 ou NGC 581) é um aglomerado estelar aberto na constelação de Cassiopeia. Foi descoberto por Pierre Méchain em 1781, e foi o último objeto do catálogo Messier a ser catalogado por Charles Messier.

Messier 103

Descoberta e visualização

aglomerado aberto é uma das últimas entradas do catálogo de objetos do céu profundo do astrônomo francês Charles Messier. Foi descoberto pelo seu assistente, Pierre Méchain, em 1781, mas foi incluído no catálogo sem a devida verificação por parte de Messier, pois o astrônomo tinha a intenção de publicar seu catálogo no anuário francêsConnaissance des temps e a data limite para a inclusão de trabalhos estava se aproximando.1
Bons binóculos com magnificação acima de 10 x 40 podem resolver o aglomerado como uma mancha nebulosa. Entretanto, em telescópios amadores, sua localização pode não ser bem definida, pois o objeto tem uma baixa densidade estelar e pode ser confundido com outros aglomerados em seu torno.1

Messier 103
Messier 103
Messier 103
Descoberto porPierre Méchain
Data1781
Dados observacionais (J2000)
ConstelaçãoCassiopeia
TipoAglomerado estelar aberto
Asc. reta01h 32,2m
Declinação60° 42′
Distância8 500 anos-luz (2 606,11 pc)
Magnit. apar.7,4
Dimensões6,0'
Características físicas
Raio7,5 anos-luz
Idade estimada25 milhões de anos
Outras denominações
M103, NGC 581
Messier 103
Cassiopeia constellation map.png








LEIA MAIS
acessando




ALGUNS OUTROS OBJETOS CELESTES
EM CASSIOPEIA



IC 1805: as nebulosas do Coração e Alma por David Lindemann

https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/1611/HeartSoul_Lindemann_1280.jpg
http://eternosaprendizes.com/2016/11/17/ic-1805-as-nebulosas-do-coracao-e-alma-por-david-lindemann/




Stellarium

Nebulosa do Coração
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebulosa_do_Cora%C3%A7%C3%A3o#/media/File:IC1805_--_H-alpha_%2B_RGB.jpg




Nebulosa da Alma (Sharpless 2-199, LBN 667) é uma nebulosa de emissão na constelação de Cassiopéia. Vários pequenos aglomerados abertos são incorporados na nebulosa: CR 34, 632, e 634, IC1848 a nebulosa é mais conhecida pela designação IC1848.
Este complexo é o vizinho do leste de IC1805 (Nebulosa do Coração) e as duas são frequentemente mencionados como "coração e alma".
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebulosa_da_Alma

Nebulosa do CoraçãoIC 1805Sh2-190, fica a cerca de 7500 anos-luz de distância da Terra e está localizada no Braço de Perseus na constelação de Cassiopeia. É uma nebulosa de emissão mostrando gás brilhante e faixas escuras de poeira. A nebulosa é formada por plasma de hidrogênio ionizado e elétrons livres.
A parte mais brilhante da nebulosa é classificada separadamente como NGC 896, pois foi a primeira parte da nebulosa a ser descoberta.
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebulosa_do_Cora%C3%A7%C3%A3o

Por NASA/JPL-Caltech - [1], Domínio público, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5556491



http://www.astronoo.com/pt/artigos/nebulosas-do-coracao-e-do-alma.html




Imagem : As duas Nebulosas do Coração e do Alma, IC 1805 (direita) e IC 1848 (esquerda) são os maiores nesta foto. A nebulosa IC 1795 é a nebulosa pequena no canto superior direito da IC 1805 e IC 1871 está à esquerda de IC 1848.

Nebulosas do Coração e do Alma, IC 1805 IC 1848



Imagem : A região central da nebulosa IC 1795, é altamente coloridos por meio de filtros de larga banda.
A emissão de oxigênio azul, verde para os de hidrogênio, e vermelho para enxofre.
Esta foto foi tirada pelo Telescópio Espacial Hubble.

nebulosa IC 1795, uma nuvem de poeira
http://www.astronoo.com/pt/artigos/nebulosas-do-coracao-e-do-alma.html



Stellarium



http://www.astronoo.com/pt/artigos/nebulosas-do-coracao-e-do-alma.html









NGC7789HunterWilson.jpg
By Hewholooks - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5216981

GC 7789 is an open cluster[1] in Cassiopeia that was discovered by Caroline Herschel in 1783. Her brother William Herschel included it in his catalog as H VI.30. This cluster is also known as "The White Rose" Cluster or "Caroline's Rose" Cluster because when seen visually, the loops of stars and dark lanes look like the swirling pattern of rose petals as seen from above.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7789


Stellarium




https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap131026.html


2013 October 26
See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.
NGC 7789: Caroline's Rose
Image Credit & CopyrightAlbert Barr
Explanation: Found among the rich starfields of the Milky Way toward the constellation Cassiopeia, star cluster NGC 7789 lies about 8,000 light-years away. A late 18th century deep sky discovery of astronomer Caroline Lucretia Herschel, the cluster is also known as Caroline's Rose. Its suggestive appearance is created by the cluster's nestled complex of stars and voids. Now estimated to be 1.6 billion years young, the galactic or open cluster of stars also shows its age. All the stars in the cluster were likely born at the same time, but the brighter and more massive ones have more rapidly exhausted the hydrogen fuel in their cores. These have evolved from main sequence stars like the Sun into the many red giant stars shown with a yellowish cast in this lovely color composite. Using measured color and brightness, astronomers can model the mass and hence the age of the cluster stars just starting to "turn off" the main sequence and become red giants. Over 50 light-years across, Caroline's Rose spans about half a degree (the angular size of the moon) near the center of the wide-field telescopic image.






SN 1572 - A Estrela de Tycho - Supernova de 1572
Ascensão Reta 00h24m   Declinação +64o.01
Foi visível a olho nú durante 16 meses, alcançando um brilho igual ao de Vênus. Remanescentes: radiação de radio; uma nebulosa em expansão.


http://spider.seds.org/spider/Vars/Pics/tyc_sn.jpg
The image in this page is from Tycho Brahe's "Stella Nova", taken from the online edition at the Danish National Library of Science and Medicine.


When Tycho Brahe was on his way home on November 11, 1572, his attention was attracted by a star in Cassiopeia which was shining at about the brightness of Jupiter and which had not been seen in this place before. Tycho reports (from Burnham's Celestial Handbook):
``On the 11th day of November in the evening after sunset, I was contemplating the stars in a clear sky. I noticed that a new and unusual star, surpassing the other stars in brilliancy, was shining almost directly above my head; and since I had, from boyhood, known all the stars of the heavens perfectly, it was quite evident to me that there had never been any star in that place of the sky, even the smallest, to say nothing of a star so conspicuous and bright as this. I wqs so astonished of this sight that I was not ashamed to doubt the trustworthyness of my own eyes. But when I observed that others, on having the place pointed out to them, could see that there was really a star there, I had no further doubts. A miracle indeed, one that has never been prevoiously seen before our time, in any age since the beginning of the world. "
http://spider.seds.org/spider/Vars/sn1572.html






Stellarium




NGC 147 - NGC 185 - Galáxias companheiras


NGC 185 é uma galáxia esferoidal anã localizada a aproximadamente dois milhões e trezentos mil anos-luz de distância, suficientemente próxima para ser considerada uma galáxia vizinha da Via Láctea, na direção da constelação de Cassiopéia. Possui aproximadamente nove mil e setecentos anos-luz de diâmetro, uma magnitude aparente de +9,2, uma magnitude absoluta de -15,8, uma declinação de +48° 20' 27" e uma ascensão reta de 0 horas, 38 minutos e 58,1 segundos.
A galáxia NGC 185 foi descoberta em 30 de Novembro de 1787 por William Herschel e pertence ao Grupo Local de galáxias.
NGC 147 (also known as DDO3 or Caldwell 17) is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy about 2.58 Mly away in the constellation Cassiopeia. NGC 147 is a member of the Local group of galaxies and a satellite galaxy of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). It forms a physical pair with the nearby galaxy NGC 185,[5] another remote satellite of M31. It was discovered by John Herschel in September 1829. Visually it is both fainter and slightly larger than NGC 185 (and therefore has a considerably lower surface brightness). This means that NGC 147 is more difficult to see than NGC 185, which is visible in small telescopes. In the Webb Society Deep-Sky Observer's Handbook,[6] the visual appearance of NGC 147 is described as follows:
Large, quite faint, irregularly round; it brightens in the middle to a stellar nucleus.
The membership of NGC 147 in the Local Group was confirmed by Walter Baade in 1944 when he was able to resolve the galaxy into individual stars with the 100-inch (2.5 m) telescope at Mount Wilson near Los Angeles.



http://cseligman.com/text/atlas/ngc1a.htm#185
NGC 185 (= PGC 2329)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1787) by 
William Herschel
A magnitude 9.2 elliptical galaxy (type E3 pec?) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 38 57.6, Dec +48 20 14)

Per Dreyer, NGC 185 (= John Herschel's GC 90, 1860 RA 00 31 14, NPD 42 26.0) is "pretty bright, very large, irregularly round, very gradually much bright middle, mottled but nor resolved". Apparent size 8.0 by 7.0 arcmin? Considerable dustiness near its center, unfortunately not well shown in the image below.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 185
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 185; see NGC 147 for a wider view

http://cseligman.com/text/atlas/ngc1a.htm#185


http://cseligman.com/text/atlas/ngc1.htm#147

NGC 147 (= PGC 2004)
Discovered (Sep 8, 1829) by 
John Herschel
A magnitude 9.5 elliptical galaxy (type E5? pec) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 33 11.7, Dec +48 30 26)

Per Dreyer, NGC 147 (= John Herschel's GC 72, 1860 RA 00 25 32, NPD 42 16.5) is "very faint, very large, irregularly round, gradually suddenly much brighter middle equivalent to 11th magnitude star". NGC 147 is a dwarf spheroidal member of the Andromeda Galaxy group. As such, its peculiar (non-Hubble-expansion) velocity is too large for its radial velocity to yield any estimate of its distance (in fact, it is approaching us at 195 km/sec, which would yield a negative distance if used without thinking). Redshift-independent distance estimates range from 1.9 to 2.5 million light years, primarily based on the galaxy's Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (individual stars are easily resolved with current technology). Given its apparent separation from the Andromeda Galaxy (about 7.5 degrees), it is probably about 300 thousand light years from its much larger neighbor (about the same distance as between the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud). Its apparent size of 13.2 by 7.8 arcmin corresponds to about 8 thousand light years along its largest dimension.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 147
Above, a 12 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 147
Below, a 20 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 147
Below, a 1.2 degree wide region centered between NGC 147 and NGC 185, another M31 Group galaxy
DSS image of region between elliptical galaxy NGC 147 and NGC 185, another M31 Group galaxy
Below, a 7.5 degree wide region showing the relative positions of M31 and NGC 147
DSS image of region between elliptical galaxy NGC 147 and M31, also showing NGC 185 and M110
http://cseligman.com/text/atlas/ngc1.htm#147





NGC 457
NGC 457 (also known as the Owl Cluster, the ET Cluster, or Caldwell 13) is an open star cluster in the constellation Cassiopeia. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1787,[2] and lies over 7,900 light years away from the Sun. It has an estimated age of 21 million years.[1] The cluster is sometimes referred by amateur astronomers as the Owl ClusterKachina Doll Cluster,[2] the ET Cluster (due to its resemblance to the movie character) or the "Skiing Cluster". Two bright stars, magnitude 5 Phi-1 Cassiopeiae and magnitude 7 Phi-2 Cassiopeiae can be imagined as eyes. The cluster features a rich field of about 150 stars of magnitudes 12-15.[2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_457




NGC 7790 - Aglomerado Aberto Cassiopeia
Ascensão Reta 23h57m      Declinação +61o.00
Magnitude fotográfica global 7,1   Magnitude fotográfica da mais brilhante estrela 11,7
 Distância kpc  3,16      Diâmetro 5’        Tipo Espectral B1



IRAS 23436+5257, a distorted galaxy in Cassiopeia
IRAS 23436+5257, a distorted galaxy in Cassiopeia
Image Credit: Judy Schmidt,  ESA, Hubble and NASA
IRAS 23436+5257 is a bright distorted galaxy in the northern constellation of Cassiopeia, which is named after an arrogant, vain, and yet beautiful queen in Greek mythology. It is speeding away from us at about 10,233 kilometers per second!



MCG+12-02-001, interacting galaxies in Cassiopeia
MCG02-001
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration, and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University)
MCG+12-02-001 (MCG02-001 for short) is a pair of interacting galaxies located some 200 million light-years away from Earth in the northern constellation of Cassiopeia (the Seated Queen). The pair is receding from us at about 4706 kilometers per second.




IC 1795, an emission nebula in Cassiopeia
The Fishhead Nebula, Northern Bear Nebula
Image Credit & Copyright: Ken Crawford, Rancho Del Sol Observatory (http://www.imagingdeepsky.com)
IC 1795 (nicknamed the Fishhead Nebula or Northern Bear Nebula) is a bright emission nebula of about 70 light-years across with glowing gas and dark lanes of obscuring dust, located just over 6,000 light-years away from Earth in the northern constellation of Cassiopeia. The brighter region of the nebula is designated NGC 896.
It is part of a complex of star forming regions that lies at the edge of a large molecular cloud called W3, along t






Sharpless 188, a planetary nebula in Cassiopeia
SH2-188, Simeis 22, The Dolphin Nebula
Image Credit: T.A. Rector/University of Alaska Anchorage, H. Schweiker/WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF
Sharpless 188 (SH2-188, Simeis 22 or the Dolphin Nebula) is an unusual planetary nebula in the galactic disk, approximately 850 light-years away from Earth in the northern constellation of Cassiopeia.


http://cseligman.com/text/atlas/cassiopeia.htm
Historical Map of Cassiopeia
     A portion of Bayer's 1603 map and drawing of Cassiopeia, showing her as a seated female figure. The very bright star to the left of the figure is Tycho's supernova of 1572, which though having faded away, remained a memorable object in 1603. (Image rotated to a vertical position relative to the original horizontal plates; from the USNO copy of the 1661 edition of Bayer's Uranometria)
Portion of Bayer's Uranometria showing Cassiopeia
http://cseligman.com/text/atlas/cassiopeia.htm



The text is in the public domain.

[image ALT: a blank space]
p142
A place where Cassiopea sits within
Inferior light, for all her daughter's sake.
Mrs. Browning's Paraphrases on Nonnus.
Cassiopeia, or Cassiope,
more correctly Cassiepeia, although variously written, is one of the oldest and popularly best known of our constellations, and her throne, "the shinie Casseiopeia's chair" of Spenser's Faerie Queen, is a familiar object to the most youthful observer. It also is known as the Celestial W when below the pole, and the Celestial M when above it.
Hyginus, writing the word Cassiepia [Astron. II.10], described the figure as bound to her seat, and thus secured from falling out of it in going around the pole head downward, — this particular spot in the sky having been selected by the p143queen's enemies, the sea-nymphs, to give her an effectual lesson in humility, for a location nearer the equator would have kept her nearly upright. Aratos said of this:
She head foremost like a tumbler sits.
Her outstretched legs also, for a woman accustomed to the fashions of the East, must have added to her discomfort.
Euripides and Sophocles, of the fifth century before our era, wrote of her, while all the Greeks made much of the constellation, knowing it asΚασσιέπεια and  τοῦ θρόνου, She of the Throne. But at one time in Greece it was the Laconian Key, from its resemblance to that instrument, the invention of which was attributed in classical times to that people;1 although Pliny claimed this for Theodorus of Samos in Caria, 730 B.C., whence came another title for our stars, Carion. The learned Huetius (Huet, bishop of Avranches and tutor of the dauphin Louis XV) more definitely said that this stellar key represented that described by Homer as sickle-shaped in the wardrobe door of Penelope:
A brazen key she held, the handle turn'd,
With steel and polish'd elephant adorned;
and Aratos wrote of the constellation:
E'en as a folding door, fitted within
With key, is thrown back when the bolts are drawn.
But even Ideler did not understand this simile, although the outline of the chief stars well shows the form of this early key.
The Romans transliterated the Greek proper name as we still have it, but also knew Cassiopeia as Mulier Sedis, the Woman of the Chair; or simply as Sedes, qualified by regalis or regia; and as Sella and Solium. Bayer's statement that Juvenal called it Cathedra mollis was an error from a misreading of the original text. Hyde's title Inthronata has been repeated by subsequent authors; and Cassiopeia's Chair is the children's name for it now.
The Arabians called it Al Dhāt al Kursiyy, the Lady in the Chair, — Chilmead's Dhath Alcursi, — the Greek proper name having no signification to them; but the early Arabs had a very different figure here, in no way connected with the Lady as generally is supposed, — theirKaff al adib, p144the large Hand Stained with Henna, the bright stars marking the fingertips; although in this they included the nebulous group in the left hand of Perseus. Chrysococca gave it thus in the Low Greek Χείρ βεβαμένη; and it sometimes was the Hand of, i.e. next to, the Pleiades, while Smyth said that in Arabia it even bore the title of that group, Al Thurayya, from its comparatively condensed figure.
The early Arabs additionally made Two Dogs out of Cassiopeia and Cepheus, from which may have come Bayer's Canis; but his Cerva, a Roe, is not explained, although La Lande asserted that the Egyptian sphere of Petosiris had shown a Deer to the north of the Fishes. Al Tizini imagined aKneeling Camel from some of its larger stars, whence the constellation's name Shuter found with Al Nar al Din, and common for that animal in Persia.
The Alfonsine Tables and Arabo-Latin Almagest described the figure as habens palmam delibutam, Holding the Consecrated Palm, from some early drawing that is still continued; but how the palm, the classic symbol of victory and Christian sign of martyrdom, became associated with this heathen queen does not appear.a Similarly La Lande cited Siliquastrum, the name for a tree of Judaea, referring to the branch in the queen's hand.
Bayer's Hebrew title for it, Aben Ezra, was by a misreading of Scaliger's notes.
La Lande quoted Harnacaff from the Metamorphoses of Vishnu, but the later Hindus said Casyapi, evidently from the classical word.
Grimm gives the Lithuanian Jostandis, from Josta, a Girdle, although without explanation.
As the figure almost wholly lies in the Milky Way, the Celts fixed upon it as their Llys Don, the Home of Don, their king of the fairies and father of the mythical character Gwydyon,2 who gave name to that great circle. Schiller's Wallenstein, as versified by Coleridge, has
That one
White stain of light, that single glimmering yonder,
Is from Cassiopeia, and therein
Is Jupiter —
a blunder on the part of the translator that has puzzled many, as "therein" should be "beyond" or "in that direction," but even then what did the poet have in mind?
In early Chinese astronomy our constellation was Ko Taou according to Williams, although Reeves limited that title to the smaller ν, ξ, ο, and π, with p145the definition of a Porch-way; but later on its prominent stars were Wang Liang, a celebrated charioteer of the Tsin Kingdom about 470 B.C.
As a stellar figure in Egypt Renouf identified it with the Leg, thus mentioned in the Book of the Dead, the Bible of Egypt, that most ancient ritual, 4000 years old or more:
Hail, leg of the northern sky in the large visible basin.
And in some constellated form its stars unquestionably were well known on the Euphrates with the rest of the Royal Family, and shown there on seals.
The earthly Cassiopeia ought to have been black, and is so described by Milton in his verses of Il Penseroso on
That starr'd Ethiop Queen that strove
To set her beauty's praise above
The Sea-nymphs;
while Landseer with the same idea called her Cushiopeia, the Queen of Cush, or Kush, but the Leyden Manuscript makes her of fair complexion, lightly clad, upright and unbound in a very uncomfortable chair; and such is the general representation. But in the 17th-century reconstruction of sky figures in the interests of religion, our Cassiopeia became Mary Magdalene; or Deborah sitting in judgment under her palm tree in Mount Ephraim; or Bathsheba, the mother of Solomon, worthy to sit on the royal throne.
The astrologers [e.g., Ptolemy in Tetrabiblos I.9] said that it partook of the nature of Saturn and Venus.
Professor Young gives the word Bagdei as a help to memorizing the order of the chief components from their letters βαγδει; the last being the uppermost when the figure is on the horizon, hanging head downwards.
Cassiopeia lies between Cepheus, Andromeda, and Perseus, Argelander cataloguing 68 stars here, but Heis, 126; and the constellation is rich in clusters.
α, Multiple and slightly variable, 2.2 to 2.8, pale rose.
Schedar is first found in the Alfonsine Tables, and was Schedir with Hevelius; Shadar, Schedar, Shedar, Sheder, Seder, Shedis, Zedaron, etc., elsewhere; and all supposed to be from Al Sadr, the Breast, which the star marks in the figure. Some, however, have asserted that they are from the Persian Shuter for the constellation.
Ulug Beg called it Al Dhāt al Kursiyy from the whole, which Riccioli changed to Dath Elkarti.
p146Smyth said that it was known as Lucida Cassiopea, — a matter-of‑fact statement, as the brightest star in any sky figure is the lucida.
Birt noticed its variability in 1831, which is now determined as in a period of about 79 days, although irregular.
It culminates on the 18th of November.
Burnham has discovered two additional faint companions, the nearest 17ʺ.5 away; the companion first known, a smalt blue star, having been found by Sir William Herschel, in 1781, 63ʺ away.
α, β, η, and κ were the Chinese Yūh Lang, or Wang Leang.
β, 2.4, white.
Caph, Chaph, or Kaff, on the upper right-hand corner of the chair, are from the Arabic title of the constellation; but Al Tizini designated the star as Al Sanām al Nākah, the Camel's Hump, referring to the contemporaneous Persian figure.
With α Andromedae and γ Pegasi, as the Three Guides, it marks the equinoctial colure, itself exceedingly close to that great circle; and, being located on the same side of the pole as is Polaris, it always affords an approximate indication of the latter's position with respect to that point. This same location, 32° from the pole, and very near to the prime meridian, has rendered it useful for marking sidereal time. When above Polaris and nearest the zenith the astronomical day begins at 0 hours, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds; when due west the sidereal time is 6 hours; when south and nearest the horizon, 12 hours, and when east, 18 hours; this celestial clock-hand thus moving on the heavenly dial contrary to the motion of the hands of our terrestrial clocks, and at but one half the speed.
Beta's parallax, 0ʺ.16, indicates a distance of 20 light years.
Just north of it is an especially bright patch in the Milky Way.
When first Al Aaraf knew her course to be
Headlong thitherward o'er the starry sea.
Edgar Allan Poe's Al Aaraf.
About 5° to the west-northwest of Caph, 1½° distant from κ, and forming a parallelogram with Caph, γ and α, appeared, in 1572, a famous novavisible in full daylight and brighter than Venus at perigee.
Poe's name for it is from the Arabians' Al Orf, — in the plural Al Arāf, — their temporary abode of spirits midway between Heaven and Hell, and so applicable to this temporary star. This object was known for two centuries p147after its appearance as the Stranger, or the Pilgrim, Star, and theStar in the Chayre, but by us as Tycho's Star, although it was first noticed by Schuler at Wittenberg in Prussia, on the 6th of August; again at Augsburg by Hainzel, and at Winterthür, Switzerland, by Lindauer, on the 7th of November; and on the 9th by Cornelius Gemma, who called it the New Venus. Maurolycus began its systematic study at Messina on the 8th, but his published account of it in 1602, in his Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata has caused his name to be identified with it. Its lustre began to wane in the following December, and it was inserted in the Rudolphine Tables as "Nova anni 1572" of the 6th magnitude, to which it had at that time decreased. It disappeared entirely in March, 1574, so far as could then be known.b1
This nova is said to have incited Tycho to the compilation of his star-catalogue, as that of seventeen centuries earlier may have been the occasion of the catalogue of Hipparchos. At all events, it created a great commotion in its time, and induced Beza's celebrated prediction of the second coming of Christ,3 as it was considered a reappearance of the Star of Bethlehem. The statement that this star appeared in 945 and 1264 rests upon the very doubtful authority of the Bohemian astrologer Cyprian Leowitz, and is not credited by our modern astronomers; although Williams asserts that a large comet was seen in the latter year near Cassiopeia.c The reddish 10½‑magnitude, known as B Cassiopeiae, singularly variable in its light, is now to be seen 0′.8 from the spot assigned by Argelander to the star of 1572, and is thought possibly to be identical with it.b2
The Chinese recorded Tycho's nova as Ko Sing, the Guest tar.
γ, Binary, 2 and 11, brilliant white,
in Cassiopeia's girdle, was the Chinese Tsih, a Whip.
This was the first star discovered to contain bright lines in its spectrum, — by Secchi in 1886 — and so is of much interest to astronomers. The spectrum is peculiarly variable, as also is its light.
The components are 2ʺ.1 apart, at a position angle of 255°.2 and there has been no change in angle or distance since measured by Burnham in 1888. A telescope of high power shows several minute companions.
p148δ, 3,
is Ruchbah, sometimes Rucba and Rucbar, from Al Rukbah, the Knee.
It was utilized by Picard in France, in 1669, in determining latitudes during his measure of an arc of the meridian, — the first use of the telescope for geodetic purposes.
ε, of 3.6 magnitude, nearer the foot, also has borne the title Ruchbah.
ζ, of the 4th, and η, of the 5th magnitude, marking the face, were the Chinese Foo Loo, a By-path.
η, Binary, 4 and 7.5, orange and violet,
very near α, is one of the finest objects in the sky for a moderate-sized telescope; and, although unnamed, it is worth noting that the components were 5ʺ apart in 1892, at a position angle of 193°, their period being about 200 years. The parallax is 0ʺ.15 according to Struve; or 0ʺ.45 according to Davis' measures of Rutherfurd's photographs. It is certainly a neighbor, and probably the nearest to us of all the stars in this constellation.
θ, 4.4, and μ, Triple, 5.1, 10.5, and 11, deep yellow, blue, and ruddy.
The Arabians knew these as Al Marfi, the Elbow, where they lie; and the Century Cyclopedia gives Marfak as a present title for either star.
μ has the great proper motion of 3ʺ.8 annually, a rate that will carry it around the heavens in 300,000 years.

The Author's Notes:
1 Locks and keys, however, were used at the siege of Troy; have been found in Egyptian catacombs and sculptured on the walls of the Great Temple of Karnak; disinterred from the palaces of Khorsabad near Nineveh; and twice mentioned in our Old Testament, as early as Ehud's time in the Book of Judges, iii.24 and 25.
2 Gwydyon has been identified with the classical Hermes-Mercury, the reputed inventor of writing, a practitioner in magic and builder of the rainbow.
3 In the same way the comet of 1843 confirmed the Millerites in their belief in the immediate destruction of the world.

Thayer's Notes:
a Cassiopeia was queen of "Philistia", which, though sometimes said to be Ethiopia, should almost certainly be identified with the Biblical land of the Philistines, or roughly that part of Palestine now called the Gaza Strip. Her name is said to be of Phoenician origin. Either of these circumstances would associate her with a "palm" — at least in English: phoenix in Latin and Greek; for the Gaza connection, see for example the iconography of the Holy Family's Return from Egypt in the Basilica of S. Nicola in Tolentino (14c). Though this is the wrong palm (the tree rather than a generic branch of foliage), I still suspect this is where the connection ultimately lies.
b1 b2 Catalogued as SN 1572 (the SuperNova of 1572): modern telescopy finally caught up with it again, or at least with the gas it left behind, since no star seems to have survived. For full historical and technical details, see Hartmut Frommert's page and his further links there.
c According to Humboldt — a source often used by Allen — Leovitius claimed (probably in De coniunctionibus magnis, published in 1564, a few years before Tycho's supernova) to have read in a "manuscript chronicle" that a new star had appeared in those years between Cassiopeia and Cepheus, very near the Milky Way. Leovitius explicitly states that the star was not the same object as the comet.




Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas 
– As Constelações - 
são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo 
e que possibilitam nossa mente a ir percebendo que existe mais, 
bem mais, 
entre o céu e a terra...;
 bem como percebendo que o caos, 
vagarosamente,
 vai se tornando Cosmos e sendo por nossa mente conscientizado.  

Quer dizer, 
nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

COM UM ABRAÇO ESTRELADO,
Janine Milward