segunda-feira, 9 de janeiro de 2017

Aldebaran, o Olho Iluminado do Touro, desaparecendo por detrás da Lua,para os observadores dos países Árabes, da Índia, da China e do Japão, na noite de 09 de janeiro


Nesta noite de 09 de janeiro,
a Lua vai estar iluminadíssima
- 88 por cento iluminada,
já buscando seu momento de Cheia
na manhãzinha do dia 11 -
e, vagarosamente,
estará aproximando-se mais e mais
(aparentemente, é claro),
da estrela-alpha Tauri, Aldebaran,
o Olho Iluminado do Touro!

Serão momentos bem interessantes, sim,
mas este espetáculo 
de ocultação de Aldebaran pela Lua iluminada
 será apresentado
para os países Árabes, para a Índia, a China e o Japão...
e não para todo o resto de nós, que pena.
(A Ilustração Stellarium abaixo
foi realizada para Nagasaki, Japão).


Caro Leitor, 
acesse este Site
09 Jan - Occultation of α Tau - 0.9m - Asia
para bem estar informado
sobre as cidades em latitude e longitude
bem como horários 
de começo e final 
do espetáculo de ocultação
da estrela Aldebaran pela Lua
- para os afortunados observadores na Ásia.

Para nós, no Brasil,
a noite de verão promete ser bem iluminada pela Lua
já tendo encontrado-se com Aldebaran
e apresentando-se seguindo seu percurso,
movimentando-se em direção ao Chifre ao sul do Touro
e buscando cumprimentar o Objeto Messier 1,
a Nebulosa do Caranguejo.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward



α, 1.2, pale rose
Aldebaran is from Al Dabarān, the Follower, i.e. of the Pleiades, or, as Professor Whitney suggested, because it marked the 2d manzil that followed the first.

The name, now monopolized by this star, originally was given to the entire group of the Hyades and the lunar mansion which, as ir al Dabarān, the Bright One of the Follower, our star marked; yet there was diversity of opinion as to this, for the first edition of the Alfonsine Tables applied it solely to α, while that of 1483, and Al Sufi, did not recognize α as included in the title. Riccioli usually wrote it Aldebara, occasionally p384Aldebaram, adopted in the French edition of Flamsteed's Atlas of 1776; Spenser, in the Faerie Queen wrote Aldeboran, which occasionally still appears; Chaucer, in the House of Fame, and even the modern La Lande, had Aldeberan; Schickard gave the word as Addebirisand Debiron; and Costard, in his History of Astronomy, cited Aldebaron.

Al Bīrūnī quoted, as titles indigenous to Arabia, Al Fanī, the Stallion Camel; Al Fatī, the Fat Camel; and Al Mudij, the Female Camel, — the smaller adjacent stars of the Hyades being the Little Camels; and it was Tāli al Najm and Hādī al Najm, equivalents of the Stella Dominatrix of classical ages, as if driving the Pleiades before it. Indeed in the last century Niebuhr heard the synonymous Sāï al Thurayya on the Arabian shores of the Persian Gulf. A later name was ʽAin al Thaur, — which Western astronomers corrupted to Atin and Hain Altor, — identical withὌμμα Βοός, Oculus Tauri, and the early English Bull's Eye, even now a common title. Riccioli gave this more definitely as Oculus australis, and Aben Ezra as the Left Eye.

The Alfonsine Tables, however, said Cor Tauri, the Bull's Heart, which is far out of the way; and it has borne the constellation's Arabic title, changed to El Taur.
Aldebaran was the divine star in the worship of the tribe Misām, who thought that it brought rain, and that its heliacal rising unattended by showers portended a barren year.

The Hindu Rohinī, a Red Deer, used also for the nakshatra in Scorpion marked by Antares, was unquestionably from the star's ruddy hue, Leonard Digges writing, in his Prognostication for 1555, that it is "ever a meate rodde [red]"; and the Alfonsine Tables had quae trahit ad aerem clarum valde — est ut cerea.

Palilicium,1 in various orthography, but correctly Parilicium, used for the whole group of the Hyades, descended as a special designation for Aldebaran through all the catalogues to Flamsteed's where it is exclusively used. Columella called it Sucula as chief of the peasants' Suculae. Ptolemy's Λαμπαδίας, Torch-bearer, was Λαμπαύρας in Proclus' Paraphrase.

The 1603 and 1720 editions of Bayer's Uranometria distinctly terminate their lists of Aldebaran's titles with the words Subruffa Aben Ezra; but Bayer's star-names are often by no means clear, and here incorrect. The latter of these is merely the name of the famous Jewish commentator to whom he often refers; and the former a designation of the light red color (Subrufa) p385of the star which we all recognize. Some poet has written "red Aldebáran2a burns"; and William Roscoe Taylor, in his Halid:
I saw on a minaret's tip
Aldébaran2b like a ruby aflame, then leisurely slip
Into the black horizon's bowl.
In all astrology it has been thought eminently fortunate, portending riches and honor; and was one of the four Royal Stars, or Guardians of the Sky, of Persia, 5000 years ago, when it marked the vernal equinox. As such Flammarion quoted its title Taschter, which Lenormant said signified the Creator Spirit that caused rain and deluge; but a different conception of these Guardian Stars among the Hindus is noted under Argo, and still another is given by Edkins, who makes Aldebaran Sataves, the leader of the western stars.

Flammarion has assigned to it the Hebrew Āleph that we have seen for Taurus, rendering its God's Eye; and Aben Ezra identified it with biblicalKīmāh, probably in connection with all the Hyades and as being directly opposed on the sphere to Ksīl which he claimed for Antares.

Sharing everywhere in the prominence given to its constellation, this was especially the case in Babylonian astronomy, where it marked the 5th ecliptic asterism Pidnu-sha-Shame, the Furrow of Heaven, perhaps representing the whole zodiac, and analogous to the Hebrew and ArabicPadan and Fadan, the Furrow. So, before the Ram had taken the Bull's place as Leader of the Signs, Aldebaran was Ku, I-ku, or I‑ku‑u, the Leading Star of Stars. Still more anciently it was the Akkadian Gis‑da, also rendered the "Furrow of Heaven"; and Dil‑Gan, the Messenger of Light, — this, as we have seen, being applied to Hamal, Capella, Wega, and perhaps to other bright stars, as their positions changed with respect to the equinox. In the same way the Syriac word ʽIyūthā, which we have seen for the star Capella, seems to have been used also for Aldebaran.

As marking the lunar station it was the Persian Paha and the Khorasmian-Sogdian Baharu, signifying the Follower.

Riccioli cited, from Coptic Egypt, Πιώριων, Statio Hori; and Renouf identified Aldebaran with the indigenous Nile figure Sarit.

An old Bohemian title is Hrusa.

The Hervey Islanders associated it, as Aumea, with Sirius in their legend of the Pleiades.

Al Bīrūnī quoted strange Arabic titles for the comparatively vacant space p386westward towards the Pleiades, — Al aiā, Growing Small, i.e. from its rapid setting, and Kalb al Dabarān, the Dog of Aldebaran, — asserting that it was considered a place of evil omen. But there seems to have been dispute as to its location, for he added that those authors were wrong who marked this Dog by the 21st and 22d stars of Taurus, — κ and υ.

Aldebaran is but slightly south of the ecliptic, and, lying in the moon's path, is frequently occulted, thus often showing the optical illusion of projection. As one of the lunar stars it is much used in navigation. It is the only star in the Harvard Photometry which is exactly of the first magnitude, although by the Estimates of that catalogue it is 1.2. It thus has three times the brilliancy of Polaris.

The parallax is given by Elkin as 0ʺ.101, showing a distance from us of twenty-eight light years; or, if the interval between the earth and the sun, astronomers' unit of stellar measurement, be considered as one inch, that between the sun and this star would be twenty-seven miles. It is receding from our system at the rate of thirty miles a second, and, next to ζ Herculis, seems to have the greatest velocity in the line of sight of any of the bright stars yet determined. The spectrum is Solar, and a beautiful example of the type.

Aldebaran comes to the meridian on the 10th of January. It has a 10th‑magnitude companion, 109ʺ away, which has long been known, but Burnham recently divided this into 11 and 13.5, 1ʺ.8 apart, at a position angle of 279°; and, in 1888, discovered a 14th‑magnitude companion 31ʺ.4 distant, at a position angle of 109°.

The Taurids of the 20th of November radiate from a point north of, and preceding, this star. These meteors "are slow, and fireballs occasionally appear among them."

Hyades for the Holidays 
Image Credit & CopyrightJerry Lodriguss (Catching the Light)
Explanation: Recognized since antiquity and depicted on the shield of Achilles according to Homer, stars of the Hyades cluster form the head of the constellation Taurus the Bull. Their general V-shape is anchored by Aldebaran, the eye of the Bull and by far the constellation's brightest star. Yellowish in appearance, red giant Aldebaran is not a Hyades cluster member, though. Modern astronomy puts the Hyades cluster 151 light-years away making it the nearest established open star cluster, while Aldebaran lies at less than half that distance, along the same line-of-sight. Along with colorful Hyades stars, this stellar holiday portrait locates Aldebaran just below center, as well as another open star cluster in Taurus, NGC 1647 at the left, some 2,000 light-years or more in the background. Just slide your cursor over the image to identify the stars. The central Hyades stars are spread out over about 15 light-years. Formed some 800 million years ago, the Hyades star cluster may share a common origin with M44 (Praesepe), a naked-eye open star cluster in Cancer, based on M44's motion through space and remarkably similar age.

Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas 
são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo 
e que possibilitam nossa mente a ir percebendo que existe mais, bem mais,
 entre o céu e a terra..., 
bem como percebendo que o caos, vagarosamente, 
vai se tornando Cosmos 
e este por nossa mente sendo conscientizado.

Quer dizer, 
nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward
Map Maker: Elijah J. Burritt