quarta-feira, 8 de fevereiro de 2017

NGC 4038/39: Galáxias em Colisão - Antennae - em Corvus

Olá!

Uma das imagens mais impressionantes
 dos céus estrelados
é uma composição de muitas exposições separadas 
feitas pelo instrumento de ACS 
no telescópio espacial Hubble usando vários filtros diferentes.

São duas galáxias espirais em interação
 - NGC 4038 e NGC 4039 -
 que se posicionam 
contra o pano de fundo da constelação Corvus, O Corvo,
e já bem próximas à constelação Crater, a Taça.

São denominadas de Galáxias Antennae 
e estão a cerca de 62 milhões de anos-luz de nós.

Stellarium

OCTOBER 16, 2006: This new NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the Antennae galaxies is the sharpest yet of this merging pair of galaxies. During the course of the collision, billions of stars will be formed. The brightest and most compact of these star birth regions are called super star clusters. The new image allows astronomers to better distinguish between the stars and super star clusters created in the collision of two spiral galaxies.

26 de Outubro de 2006: Esta nova imagem do Telescópio Espacial Hubble, da Nasa, para as galaxias Antennae é a mais precisa até hoje sobre este par de galáxias em fusão. Ao longo do curso da colisão, bilhões de estrelas estarão se formando.  As mais brilhantes e mais compactadas regiões de nascimento dessas estrelas são chamadas de super aglomerados de estrelas.  Esta nova imagem permite aos astrônomos uma melhor distinção entre estrelas e os super aglomerados de estrelas criados na colisão das duas galaxias espirais.





http://www.aai.ee/muuseum/Uranomeetria/Pictures/Web/Reissig_W_025.jpg



Sendo assim, Caro Leitor,
quando você estiver observando o suave voo do Corvo,
lembre-se que estará podendo perceber que
além das singelas estrelas que desenham a figura do pássaro
existem dois maravilhosos objetos celestes, duas galáxias espirais,
que, em seus movimentos de interação, em sua colisão,
fazem acontecer algo que nos sugere uma cabeça humana
 vista através uma espécie de raio-x mágico,
não é verdade?

Nesta Postagem, Caro Leitor,
encontre alguma informação 
sobre a constelação Corvus
e suas principais estrelas
e, certamente, sobre NGC 4039 e NGC 4039 
- As Galáxias Antennae.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward

Stellarium







CORVUS, O CORVO



Posicionamento:
Ascensão Reta 11h54m / 12h54m      Declinação -11o.3 / -24o.9


Mito:
Apollo queria presentear Júpiter com uma festa e portanto, pediu ao Corvo para ir buscar água usando a Taça.  Em seu caminho, o Corvo percebeu uma figueira e alguns figos quase
maduros e os comeu todos... até que lembrou-se de sua missão e com medo da ira de Apollo, pegou a Hidra, a serpente marinha, usou-a como desculpa que por causa da serpente não pôde encher a Taça com água.  Apollo puniu o Corvo de forma que este jamais pudesse beber água novamente até que os figos não amadurecessem por completo e colocou o Corvo, a Taça e a Hidra no céu.


História:
Esta constelação fazia parte das 48 constelações formadas por Ptolomeu no século segundo DC.


Fronteiras:
Corvus situa-se entre as constelações Virgo, Crater, Hydra

 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão,
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986



Whitwell, Catherine Vale, 1818, An astronomical catechism. Corvus, Crater and Hydra.




Super Star Clusters in the Antennae Galaxies


http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2006/46/image/b/format/xlarge_web/

ABOUT THIS IMAGE:

Nighttime sky view of the constellation Corvus. The position of the Antennae Galaxies is marked.
Image Type: Astronomical/Illustration
Credit: NASAESA, Z. Levay (STScI) and A. Fujii





NGC 4038 / 39 - Interação entre duas Galáxias
Galáxia em Cauda Anelada formada pela interação entre duas galáxias acontece a partir da ação interna de seus campos gravitacionais. Possivelmente, as duas galáxias chegaram tão próximas uma à outra que muitas de suas estrelas e ainda uma grande quantidade de material interestelar, saíram de suas órbitas originais e mergulharam no espaço galáctico. 

Isso deve explicar os filamentos alongados e curvados que se extendem de norte a sul a partir das duas galáxias. Este objeto celeste está a cerca de 90 milhões de anos-luz e o diâmetro real do par é cerca de 100 mil anos-luz.  Uma formação similar existe na constelação de Câncer.


 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão,
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986



The Night Sky Atlas

http://www.nightskyatlas.com/ngcData.jsp?id=CRV




Revised
NGC
Number
RA
hours
J2000
DEC
degrees
J2000
Major
Diameter
arcmins
Minor
Diameter
arcmins
Position
Angle
degrees
Visual
Magnitude
Surface
Brightness
mag/arcmin2
Object
Type
Type
Codes




















NGC 403812h 01m 52.8s-18° 51´ 52"3.4´1.7´94°10.312.1barred spiral galaxy1 SBm
NGC 403912h 01m 53.8s-18° 53´ 08"3.3´1.7´55°10.412.1

The Antennae Galaxies, also known as NGC 4038/NGC 4039, are a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Corvus. They are currently going through a starburst phase, in which the collision of clouds of gas and dust, with entangled magnetic fields, causes rapid star formation. They were discovered by William Herschel in 1785.[3] NGC 4038 is located at RA 12h 01m 53.0sDec −18° 52′ 10″; and NGC 4039 at RA 12h 01m 53.6s, Dec −18° 53′ 11″.

General information

Ground-based telescopic view of the Antennae Galaxies.
The Antennae Galaxies are undergoing a galactic collision. Located in the NGC 4038 group with five other galaxies, these two galaxies are known as the Antennae Galaxies because the two long tails of starsgas and dust ejected from the galaxies as a result of the collision resemble an insect's antennae. The nuclei of the two galaxies are joining to become one giant galaxy. Most galaxies probably undergo at least one significant collision in their lifetimes. This is likely the future of our Milky Way when it collides with the Andromeda Galaxy.
Five supernovae have been discovered in NGC 4038: SN 1921ASN 1974ESN 2004GTSN 2007sr and SN 2013dk.[4]
A recent study finds that these interacting galaxies are less remote from the Milky Way than previously thought—at 45 million light-years instead of 65 million light-years.[5]
They are located 0.25° north of 31 Crateris and 3.25° southwest of Gamma Corvi.[6]
The Antennae galaxies also contain a relatively young collection of massive globular clusters that were possibly formed as a result of the collision between the two galaxies. [7] The young age of these clusters is in contrast to the average age of most known globular clusters, around 12 billion years old, with the formation of the globulars likely originating from shockwaves, generated by the collision of the galaxies, compressing large, massive molecular clouds. The densest regions of the collapsing and compressing clouds are believed to be the birthplace of the clusters.

Timeline

About 1.2 billion years ago, the Antennae were two separate galaxies. NGC 4038 was a barred spiral galaxy and NGC 4039 was a spiral galaxy. Before the galaxies collided, NGC 4039 was larger than NGC 4038.[citation needed] 900 million years ago, the Antennae began to approach one another, looking similar to NGC 2207 and IC 2163. 600 million years ago, the Antennae passed through each other, looking like the Mice Galaxies. 300 million years ago, the Antennae's stars began to be released from both galaxies. Today the two streamers of ejected stars extend far beyond the original galaxies, resulting in the antennae shape.[citation needed]
Within 400 million years, the Antennae's nuclei will collide and become a single core with stars, gas, and dust around it.[citation needed] Observations and simulations of colliding galaxies suggest that the Antennae Galaxies will eventually form an elliptical galaxy.[8]

X-ray source

Areas containing large amounts of neon, magnesium, and silicon were found when the Chandra X-ray Observatory analyzed the Antennae Galaxies. These elements are necessary in order for planets that may contain life to form. The clouds imaged contain 16 times as much magnesium and 24 times as much silicon as the Sun.



VEJA O VÍDEO:

 Super Star Clusters in the Antennae Galaxies

http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2006/46/video/a/

Zooming through the nighttime sky into the constellation Corvus the crow, deeper into the Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys image of the Antennae galaxies. The "stellar fireworks" contain brilliant young clusters of tens of thousands of stars. Orange blobs to the left and right of center are the two cores of the original galaxies, criss-crossed by dark filaments of dust seen in silhouette. Brilliant blue star clusters, born in the collision, pepper the galaxies. Pinkish glowing hydrogen gas surround star birth regions glowing under the intense energy from newborn stars.
Credit: NASAESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)




Antennae: A Galactic Spectacle

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2010/antennae/antennae_wide_field.jpg
Wide-field Optical Image 
The Antennae galaxies take their name from the long antenna-like "arms," seen in wide-angle views of the system. These features were produced by tidal forcesgenerated in the collision.
(Credit: Digitized Sky Survey)




http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1997/34/image/d/format/large_web/
Object Names: NGC 4038/4039, Antennae
Image Type: Astronomical
Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI) and NASA

Antennae Galaxy Closeup (NGC 4038/4039 )


Antennae Galaxy Closeup (NGC 4038/4039 )

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/images/hs-1997-34-g-full_jpg.jpg

Object Names: NGC 4038/4039, Antennae
Image Type: Astronomical
Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI) and NASA


http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1997/34/image/a/format/web_print/

ABOUT THIS IMAGE:

This Hubble Space Telescope image provides a detailed look at a brilliant "fireworks show" at the center of a collision between two galaxies. Hubble has uncovered over 1,000 bright, young star clusters bursting to life as a result of the head-on wreck.
[Left]
A ground-based telescopic view of the Antennae galaxies (known formally as NGC 4038/4039) - so named because a pair of long tails of luminous matter, formed by the gravitational tidal forces of their encounter, resembles an insect's antennae. The galaxies are located 63 million light-years away in the southern constellation Corvus.

[Right]
The respective cores of the twin galaxies are the orange blobs, left and right of image center, crisscrossed by filaments of dark dust. A wide band of chaotic dust, called the overlap region, stretches between the cores of the two galaxies. The sweeping spiral- like patterns, traced by bright blue star clusters, shows the result of a firestorm of star birth activity which was triggered by the collision.

This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element).
Object Names: NGC 4038/4039, Antennae
Image Type: Astronomical
Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI) and NASA





Hubble Reveals Stellar Fireworks Accompanying Galaxy Collisions


http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1997/34/image/b/format/web_print/

ABOUT THIS IMAGE:

These four close-up views are taken from a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies, seen at image center. The scale bar at the top of each image is 1,500 light-years across.
[Left images]
The collision triggers the birth of new stars in brilliant blue star clusters, the brightest of which contains roughly a million stars. The star clusters are blue because they are very young, the youngest being only a few million years old, a mere blink of the eye on the astronomical time scale.

[Right images]
These close-up views of the cores of each galaxy show entrapped dust and gas funneled into the center. The nucleus of NGC 4038 (lower right) is obscured by dust which dims and reddens starlight by scattering the shorter, bluer wavelengths. This is also the reason the young star clusters in the dusty regions appear red instead of blue.

This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element).
Object Names: NGC 4038/4039, Antennae
Image Type: Astronomical/Illustration/Annotated
Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI) and NASA
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1997/34/image/b/

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2010/antennae/antennae_multipanel.jpg
X-ray, Infrared & Optical Images of Antennae 
The Antennae galaxies are a pair of colliding galaxies about 62 million light years from Earth. These images show X-rays from Chandra, optical data from Hubble, and infrared data from Spitzer. The X-ray image shows huge clouds of hot, interstellar gas that have been injected with rich deposits of elements from supernova explosions. This enriched gas, which includes elements such as oxygen, iron, magnesium and silicon, will be incorporated into new generations of stars and planets. The bright, point-like sources in the image are produced by material falling onto black holes and neutron stars that are remnants of the massive stars. 
(Credit:X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/J.DePasquale; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech; Optical: NASA/STScI)




  • A new composite image from NASA's Great Observatories presents a stunning display of the Antennae galaxies.

  • X-ray data from Chandra (blue), optical data from Hubble (gold and brown), and infrared data from Spitzer (red) are featured.

  • Supernova explosions are enriching the intergalactic gas with elements like oxygen, iron, and silicon that will be incorporated into new generations of stars and planets
http://chandra.si.edu/photo/2010/antennae/





Galáxias em colisão - NGC4038 e NGC4039

Esta imagem do Hubble das galáxias das antenas é a mais perfeita deste par de galáxias em fusão. Como as duas galáxias se despedaçam juntas, bilhões de estrelas nascem, principalmente em grupos e aglomerados de estrelas. O mais brilhante e compacto destes são chamados clusters de super star.

Crédito: NASA , ESA , e Hubble Heritage Team STScI / AURA ) - ESA / Hubble Colaboração. Agradecimento: B. Whitmore ( Space Telescope Science Institute ) e James Long (ESA / Hubble).


Antennae:

Superbubbles Bespeak Toil and Trouble 

Antennae
Credit: NASA/SAO/CXC/G.Fabbiano et al.

Credit NASA/SAO/CXC/G.Fabbiano et al.
This Chandra X-ray image of the Antennae (NGC4038/4039) shows the central regions of two galaxies in collision. The dozens of bright point-like sources are neutron stars or black holes pulling gas off nearby stars. The bright fuzzy patches are superbubbles thousands of light years in diameter that were produced by the accumulated power of thousands of supernovas. The remaining glow of X-ray emission could be due to many faint X-ray sources, or to clouds of hot gas in the galaxies.

Chandra Image of Diffuse Emission
This X-ray image has been processed to minimize the point sources in the Chandra observations of The Antennae galaxies. The result is that the clouds of multimillion-degree gas in the system are clearly revealed. The colors in this image show the intensity of the low (red), medium (green) and high (blue) energy X-rays.
Scale: Image is 2 arcmin per side.
(Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO/G. Fabbiano et al.)




http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2004/antennae/antennae_panel.jpg
This montage of Chandra images shows a pair of interacting galaxies known as The Antennae. Rich deposits of neon, magnesium, and silicon were discovered in the interstellar gas of this system.
NGC 4038, NGC 4039
References G. Fabbiano et al. 2003, Astrophys. J. Letters (in press), "X-raying Chemical Evolution and Galaxy Formation in The Antennae"
Credit NASA/CXC/SAO/G.Fabbiano et al.


Optical (green & white) + Radio (blue) image of the Antennae.

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/0120/n4038rgb72dpi.jpg
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF/CTIO/J. Hibbard et al.





Antennae
http://chandra.si.edu/photo/2010/antennae/



Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas
- As Constelações -
são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo
e que possibilitam nossa mente a ir percebendo que existe mais,

bem mais,

entre o céu e a terra
bem como percebendo que o caos,
vagarosamente,
vai se tornando Cosmos
e sendo por nossa mente conscientizado.
Quer dizer, nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

COM UM ABRAÇO ESTRELADO,
Janine Milward