segunda-feira, 17 de abril de 2017

Uma Lebre - Lepus - aos pés do Gigante Caçador Orion


Olá!

Sempre que nossa visão é atraída, irresistívelmente atraída,
pelo Gigante Orion nos céus estrelados,
é certo que também podemos divisar
as estrelinhas que compõem a figura de Lepus, a Lebre,
bem aos pés do Caçador
e diante do Rio dos céus estrelados, Eridanus.

Em Postagens posteriores, Caro Leitor,
estaremos comentando sobre constelações que rodeiam
e fazem parte de alguns dos Mitos 
de o Caçador Orion
- como o Rio de Estrelas, Eridanus, 
como os Cães Maior e Menor, Canis Major e Canis Minor,
como o Unicórnio, Monoceros,
e agora, certamente, contamos com a presença da Lebre, Lepus,
constelação de estrelinhas tímidas,
mas que podem ser bem divisadas
quando em noites mais escuras e transparentes
e com ausência de Lua.

E é bem aos pés ligeiros de Lepus,
que encontraremos
M79, o único Objeto Messier
nesta constelação.

Ao final dessa Postagem, Caro Leitor,
encontre as informações advindas de Richard H. Allen
sobre Lepus, a Lebre.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward



Stellarium








http://www.raremaps.com/gallery/detail/36717/LEridan_Orion_et_Le_Lievre/Flamsteed-Fortin.html
Title: L'Eridan, Orion et Le Lievre
Map Maker: John Flamsteed /  MJ Fortin





http://www.raremaps.com/gallery/detail/37703/The_January_February_and_March_Sky_Cancer_Perseus_Gemini_Taurus/Burritt.html
Title: [The January, February & March Sky -- Cancer, Perseus, Gemini, Taurus, Orion, Monceros, Canis Major, Lepus, Argo Navis, Hydra, Perseus, Lynx, etc.]
Map Maker: Elijah J. Burritt





Mario Jaci Monteiro - As Constelações, Cartas Celestes




LEPUS, O COELHO, A LEBRE



Posicionamento:
Ascensão Reta 4h54m / 6h9m     Declinação -11o.0 / +27o.1

Mito:
Um jovem rapaz da Ilha de Leros muito queria um coelho
 e encomendou um mais distante - pois nenhum podia ser encontrado na ilha. 
Os outros habitantes também quiseram possuir um coelho... 
de tal forma que os animais se multiplicaram tanto
 que não havia suficiente comida para eles, 
que devoraram o milho nos campos.
  Então, os habitantes se juntaram e deram cabo dos coelhos.


 6a. Edição do Atlas Celeste
de autoria de Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas Mourão,
Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, ano de 1986

http://www.iau.org/static/public/constellations/gif/LEP.gif


Stellarium


Lepus (Lep), a Lebre, é uma constelação do hemisfério celestial sul logo ao sul do equador celeste, abaixo da constelação de Orion, e possivelmente representando uma lebre sendo caçada por Orion, o caçador. Lepus uma das 48 constelações de Ptolomeu, e figura também entre as 88 constelações modernas. O genitivo, usado para formar nomes de estrelas, é Leporis.

Localização

Lebre se situa imediatamente ao sul da constelação de Órion e a oeste da constelação Cão Maior. Localizar Lebre é portanto fácil. Ela deve sua sobrevivência em tal entorno a sua relativa discrição, sendo suas estrelas relativamente menores (mag 3) que as de seus vizinhos.

Estrelas Principais

Alfa – Arneb - estrela de magnitude visual 2.58, absoluta -5.40; dista 1284 anos-luz e tem 73 raios solares; temperatura superficial 7200 K e classe espectral F0I-b.
Beta - Nihal - é uma binária aproximada com companheira tênue; magnitudes 2.8 e 11; separação 2.5". estrela de magnitude visual 2.81, absoluta -0.63; dista 159 anos-luz e tem 12 raios solares; temperatura superficial 5080 K e classe espectral G5II.
Gama Leporis - é uma larga binária com coloração em leve contraste, amarelo e laranja e magnitudes 3.7 e 6.3; separação 96.3". estrela de magnitude visual 3.59, absoluta 3.82; dista 29 anos-luz e tem 1.38 raios solares. Classe espectral F7V; temperatura superficial 6280 K.
Delta Leporis - estrela de magnitude visual 3.76, absoluta 1.07; dista 112 anos-luz e tem 6.2 raios solares. Classe espectral G8III; temperatura superficial 5570 K.
Épsilom Leporis - estrela de magnitude visual 3.19, absoluta -1.02; dista 226 anos-luz e tem 24 raios solares; temperatura superficial 4590 K e classe espectral K4III.
Zeta Leporis - estrela de magnitude visual 3.55, absoluta 1.88; dista 70 anos-luz e tem 1.6 raios solares; temperatura superficial 8970 K e classe espectral A2V.
Eta Leporis - estrela de magnitude visual 3.71, absoluta 2.82; dista 49 anos-luz e tem 1.7 raios solares. Classe espectral F1V; temperatura superficial 7050 K.
Kappa Leporis - é um sistema fixo de magnitudes 4.5 e 7.4; separação 2.6".
Mu Leporis - é uma variável tipo alfa CV que oscila de 2.97 a 3.41 cada dois dias. estrela de magnitude visual 3.29, absoluta -0.47; dista 184 anos-luz e tem 3.5 raios solares; temperatura superficial 10500 K e classe espectral B9IV.
Rho Leporis - é uma variável tipo alfa Cygni e flutua de 3.83 a 3.90.
h3750 – é uma binária fixa com magnitudes 4.7 e 8.5; separação 4.2".
h3752 – sistema múltiplo com par AB possuindo magnitudes 5.5 e 6.5 e separação aparente 3.1". C tem magnitude 9 e está separado 59".
R Leporis - é uma variável de longo-período tipo Mira e oscila de 6 a 11.5 com período de 427.07 dias, podendo oscilar de 427 a 440 dias. A estrela arde com um intenso vermelho; John Russell Hind (em 1845) a descreveu como "uma gota de sangue no fundo do céu". Infelizmente, quando a estrela atinge o máximo, perde muito da sua cor.


Lepus constellation map.svg
"Lepus constellation map" por Lepus_constellation_map.png: Torsten Brongerderivative work: Kxx (talk) - Lepus_constellation_map.png. Licenciado sob CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lepus_constellation_map.svg#/media/File:Lepus_constellation_map.svg



Stellarium






http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/2mass/gallery/m79atlas.jpg





Messier 79

Globular Cluster M79 (NGC 1904), class V, in Lepus
[m79.jpg]
Right Ascension05 : 24.5 (h:m)
Declination-24 : 33 (deg:m)
Distance42.1 (kly)
Visual Brightness7.7 (mag) 
Apparent Dimension9.6 (arc min)


Discovered 1780 by Pierre Méchain.

Globular cluster Messier 79 (M79, NGC 1904) is a nice globular cluster in an unusual place for this kind of objects, in the hemisphere opposite to the Galactic Center, in the inconspicuous constellation Lepus.

M79 was found by Pierre Méchain on October 26, 1780, and reported his discovery to his friend and colleague, Charles Messier, who determined its position and included it in his catalog on December 17, 1780. It was first resolved into stars and recognized as a globular cluster by William Herschel in about 1784.
................................................

LEIA MAIS
em
http://messier.obspm.fr/m/m079.html




Stellarium



Messier 79 (NGC 1904) é um aglomerado globular localizado a mais de sessenta mil anos-luz de distância na direção da constelação da Lebre. Possui uma magnitude aparente de +7,7, uma declinação de -24º 31' 27" e uma ascensão reta de 5 horas, 24 minutos e 10,6 segundos.
O aglomerado globular NGC 1904 foi descoberto em 1780 por Pierre Méchain.
Supõe-se estar associado com a galáxia anã de Canis Maior.
....................................................
nebulosa foi descoberta pelo astrômomo francês Pierre Méchain em 26 de outubro de 1780, sendo catalogado pelo seu colega de observatório, Charles Messier, em 17 de dezembro daquele ano. William Herschel foi o primeiro a resolver suas estrelas mais brilhantes em 1784.5
.........................................................

aglomerado globular está em uma posição incomum na esfera celeste para um objeto desse tipo, no hemisfério oposto aonúcleo da Via-Láctea. Está situado a cerca de 40 000 anos-luz em relação à Terra, mas cerca de 60 000 anos-luz em relação ao centro galáctico.[5]
Seu diâmetro aparente de 9,6 minutos de grau corresponde a um diâmetro real de 118 anos-luz. Está se afastando do Sistema Solar a uma velocidade de cerca de 200 km/s. Contém apenas 7 estrelas variáveis conhecidas.[5]
Suspeita-se que M79 não seja originalmente pertencente à Via-Láctea, mas sim de uma de suas galáxias satélite, a Galáxia Anã do Cão Maior, que está atualmente muito próxima do plano galáctico da Via-Láctea e está sendo dilacerada por ela. Além de M79, outros aglomeradosglobulares suspeitos de pertencerem à galáxia do Cão Maior são NGC 1851, NGC 2298 e NGC 2808.[5]
LEIA MAIS
em
http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_79

Messier 79
Messier 79, projeto 2MASS
Messier 79, projeto 2MASS
Descoberto porPierre Méchain
Data26 de outubro 1780
Dados observacionais (J2000)
ConstelaçãoLepus
TipoAglomerado globular V1
Asc. reta05h 24m 10,59s2
Declinação-24° 31′ 27,3″2
Distância41 kal3 (13 kpc)
Magnit. apar.8,7'
Características físicas
Idade estimada11,7 bilhões de anos4
Outras denominações
M79, NGC 1904, GCl 102
Messier 79
Lepus constellation map.png

http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_79




Resultado de imagem para Johann Bayer — Lepus
Star Names
Their Lore and Meaning 

by
Richard Hinckley Allen 

as reprinted
in the Dover edition, 1963
The text is in the public domain.

[image ALT: a blank space]
p264
Behind him Sirius ever speeds as in pursuit, and rises after,
And eyes him as he sets.
Poste's Aratos.

Lepus, the Hare,

the German Hase, the Italian Lepre and the French Lièvre, is located just below Orion and westward from his Hound.
It was Λαγώς among the Greeks — Λαγωός in the Epic dialect, — Aratos characterizing its few and faint stars by the adjective γλαυκός. With the Greeks of Sicily, the country noted in early days for the great devastation by hares, the constellation was Λέπορις, whence came the fanciful stories p265that our Hare was placed in the heavens to be close to its hunter, Orion. Riccioli enlarged upon this in his Almagestum Novum:
Quia Orion in gratiam Dianae, quae leporino sanguine gaudebat, plurimum venatu leporis gaudet.
Among the Romans it was simply Lepus, often qualified by the description auritus, "eared"; dăsypus,º "rough-footed"; levipes, "light-footed"; andvelox, "swift."
The Arabians adopted the classical title in their Al Arnab, which degenerated into AlarnebetElarneb, and Harneb; and the Hebrews are said to have known it as Arnebeth; but the early Arabs designated the principal stars, αβγ, and δ — as Al Kursiyy al Jabbār and Al ʽArsh al Jauzah, the Chair of the Giant and the Throne of the Jauzah. Kazwini, repeating this, added, in Ideler's rendering, Gott weiss wie sonst noch, which Smyth assumed to be Ideler's comment thereon; but it was merely his translation of Kazwini's Arabic formula, God is the Omniscient, used when a writer did not wish to come to a decision. Smyth further wrote of it:
᾽Abdr rahmān Sūfī designates the throne — one of the many which the Arabs had in their heavens, although a squatting rather than a sitting people — al-muakhkherah, the succeeding, as following that formed by λβψ Eridani and τ Orionis.
Al Sufi also cited the occasional Al Nihāl, the Thirst-slaking Camels, for the four bright stars, in reference to the near-by celestial river, the Milky Way.
It is in the space occupied by Lepus, or perhaps by Monoceros, that Hommel locates the Euphratean Udkagaba, the Smiting Sun Face, although Brown assigns this to Sagittarius, "the original Sagittary being the sun."
Hewitt says that in earliest Egyptian astronomy Lepus was the Boat of Osiris, the great god of that country, identified with Orion. The Chinese knew it as Tsih, a Shed.
Caesius made the constellation represent one of the hares prohibited to the Jews; but Julius Schiller substituted for it Gideon's Fleece. The Denderah planisphere has in its place a Serpent apparently attacked by some bird of prey; and Persian zodiacs imitated this.
Gould catalogues in Lepus 103 stars down to the 7th magnitude.
Aelian, of our 2d century, in his Περὶ ζώων ἰδιότητος,º referred to the early belief that the hare detested the voice of the raven, — a belief that has generally been put among the zoölogical fables of antiquity; but Thompson suggests for it an astronomical explanation, as "the constellation Lepus sets soon after the rising of Corvus"; and something similar may be said of Lepus in connection with Aquila, for the
p266eagle in combat with the hare is frequent on gems, and on coins of Agrigentum, Messana, Elis, etc. . . . the wide occurrence of this subject . . . indicates a lost mythological significance, in which one is tempted to recognize a Solar or Stellar symbol.
Brown writes of the often discussed comparative location of Lepus and Orion:
The problem which perplexed the ancients, why the Mighty-hunter and his Dog should pursue the most timid of creatures, is solved when we recognize that Orion was originally a solar type, and that the Hare is almost universally a lunar type;
and mentions the very singular connection between this creature and the moon shown on Euphratean cylinders, Syrian agate seals, Chinese coins, the Moon-cakes of Central Asia, and in the legends of widely separated nations and savage tribes. Astronomical folk-lore has many allusions to this interesting association of animal with satellite, and indirectly with our constellation. The common idea that it is because all are nocturnal does not seem satisfactory; and there are others still less so, some being mentioned by Beaumont and Fletcher in the Faithful Shepherd.
A brief digression to some of these allusions may be allowed here. The Hindus called the moon Çaçin, or Ṣaṣānka, Marked with the Hare, from the story told of Sakya muni (Buddha). This holy man, in an early stage of his existence, was a hare, and, when in company with an ape and a fox, was applied to by the god Indra, disguised as a beggar, who, wishing to test their hospitality, asked for food. All went in search of it, the hare alone returning unsuccessful; but, that he might not fall short in duty to his guest, had a fire built and cast himself into it for the latter's supper. In return, Indra rewarded him by a place in the moon where we now see him. Other Sanskrit and Cingalese tales mention the palace of the king of the hares on the face of the moon; the Aztecs saw there the rabbit thrown by one of their gods; and the Japanese, the Jeweled Hare poundingomochi, their rice dough, in a mortar. Even the Khoikhoin, the Hottentots of South Africa, and the Bantus associated the hare and moon in their worship, and connected them in story, asserting that the hare, ill treated by the moon, scratched her face and we still see the scratches. Eskimos think the moon a girl fleeing from her brother, the sun, because he had disfigured her face by ashes thrown at her; but in Greenland the sex of these luminaries is interchanged, and the moon pursues his sister, the sun, who daubs her sooty hands over his face. The Khasias of the Himalayas say that every month the moon falls in love with his mother-in‑law, who very properly repulses his affection by throwing ashes at him.
Other ideas to account for the lunar marks are current among many nations. p267One from our North American Indians appears in Longfellow'sHiawatha:
Once a warrior very angry,
Seized his grandmother, and threw her
Up into the sky at midnight;
Right against the moon he threw her;
'Tis her body that you see there.
The Incas knew them as a beautiful maiden who fell in love with the moon and joined herself forever to him; the New Zealanders, as a woman pulling gnatuh; the Hervey Islanders, as the lovely Ina, an earthly maiden carried away to be our satellite's wife, and still visible with her pile oftaro leaves and tongs of a split cocoanut branch; and the Samoans, as a woman with her child and the mallet with which she is pounding out sheets of the native paper cloth. So that all these people long ago anticipated pretty Selene,1 of whom Serviss tells us.
In southern Sweden a brewing-kettle is imagined on the moon's face; in northern Germany and Iceland, Hjuki and Bil with their mead burden, the originals of our Jack and Jill with their pail of water, the contents scattered or retained according to the lunar phases. In Frisia the marks were a man who had stolen cabbages, and whom, when discovered, his suffering neighbors wished in the moon, and so it turned out; or a sheep-stealer, with his dog, who enticed the animals to him by cabbages, and, when detected, was transported to the moon, where he is now seen, cabbages and all. But others said that he was caught with a bundle of osier willows that did not belong to him, and there he is on the moon's face with his plunder.
Danish folklore makes the moon a cheese formed from the milk that has run together out of the Milky Way; which recalls Rabelais' now familiar remark that some thought the moon made of green cheese.
Those biblically inclined saw here the Magdalen in tears; or Judas Iscariot; and, in the earlier record, the patriarch JacobIsaac with the wood for the sacrifice; the Hebrew sinner gathering sticks on the Sabbath; or Cain driven from the face of the earth to the face of the moon. This appeared even with Dante, Chaucer, and Shakespeare, for the first had in the Paradiso [II.49‑51]:
But tell me what the dusky spots may be
Upon this body, which below on earth
Make people tell that fabulous tale of Cain;
p268and in the Inferno [XX.124‑126, paraphrased]:
Touches the ocean wave Cain and the thorns.
In A Midsummer Night's Dream Quince says:
Or else one must come in with a bush of thorns and a lanthorn and say, he comes to disfigure, or to present the person of moonshine;
and Chaucer described the figure as
Bearing a bush of thorns on his back
Whiche for his theft might clime so ner the heaven;
although Milton, from a higher plane of thought, wrote that the sinful wandered
Not in the neighbouring moon as some have dreamed.
The Salish Indians of our northwest coast tell of a toad which, pursued by a wolf, jumped to the moon to escape his unwelcome attentions.
At the present day the handsome face of Selene shows itself in profile to the favored few; while the Old Man in the Moon is seen by all. It would be interesting to know who originated this, or, as in Hudibras,
Who first found out the Man in the Moon,
That to the ancients was unknown.
Yet Shakespeare knew him well, for we find in The Tempest:
The man i' th' moon's too slow.
Ages before all this, however, the Egyptians had similar ideas; the Hindus called the moon Mriga, an Antelope; the Aethiopians saw that creature in it; while the Greeks knew it as the Gorgon's head, and Plutarch thought the phenomenon worthy a special treatise in his De Facie in Orbe Lunae. But perhaps too much attention has been paid to a probably very dead star; — let us return to those certainly alive, our more legitimate subject.

α, Double, 2.7 and 9.5, pale yellow and gray.

Arneb is from the Arabian name for the whole, but the Century Dictionary substitutes the early Rash.
Other near-by stars, presumably in Lepus, were the Chinese Kuen Tsing, an Army Well, and Ping Sing, the Star Screen.
p269Arneb culminates on the 24th of January.
The components are 35ʺ.4 apart, at a position angle of 156°; and 6′ away is Sir John Herschel's 3780, a sextuple star.

β, Double, 3.5 and 11, deep yellow and blue.

Nihal is from the collective title of αβγ, and δ, — Nibal with Burritt.
Holden says that the companion, nearly 3ʺ away, at a position angle of 292°, is suspected to be a planet; and Burnham has discovered other faint companions.
The variable R, 6th to 8.5 magnitudes, is Hind's Crimson Star, discovered by Mr. J. R. Hind in 1845, — "like a drop of blood on a black field." It lies in front of the Hare's head, on the border of Eridanus, but its discoverer announced it as in Orion. Its variability, in a very irregular period of about 438 days, was first recorded by Schmidt in 1855, but accurate observations of maxima and minima are difficult in high latitudes.

The Author's Note:


1 This may be seen on the western half of the moon after the ninth day of lunation, the face slightly upturned toward the east. It seems to have been first described some years ago by Doctor James Thompson; and an opera-glass of low power makes the phenomenon very distinct.



Os desenhos formados pelas estrelas 
- as constelações -
são como janelas que se abrem para a infinitude do universo 
e que possibilitam nossa mente
 a ir percebendo que existe mais, bem mais, 
entre o céu e a terra...; 
bem como percebendo que o caos, 
vagarosamente, 
vai se tornando Cosmos
 e sendo por nossa mente conscientizado.  

Quer dizer, 
nossa mente é tão infinita quanto infinito é o Cosmos.

COM UM ABRAÇO ESTRELADO,
Janine Milward