domingo, 4 de junho de 2017

Tycho Brahe e protótipos de micro Espaçonaves com seu Nome, na Dinamarca


Olá!

Sabemos que o mestre Tycho Brahe
nasceu na Dinamarca
e existe uma organização amadora
chamada
Copenhagen Suborbitals
que apresenta, 
entre outros programas,
protótipos de cápsulas espaciais
nomeadas de
Tycho Brahe,
Tycho Deep Space
e
Tycho Deep Space II.

Tycho Brahe é o primeiro protótipo de espaçonave desenhado e construído por C.S.

Tycho Deep Space (TDS), nomeado como Beautiful Betty, Linda Bety, é uma cápsula espacial protótipa de segunda geração e construída em CS.

Tycho Deep Space II é a terceira geração de capsula espacial baseada em lições aprendidas e transferência de tecnologia de capsulas espaciais anteriores de Copenhagen Suborbitals, e o cenário final de missão suborbital. 


Nesta Postagem,
Caro Leitor,
encontre alguma informação
sobre este interessante empreendimento
e seus trabalhos.

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward


P.S.  Caro Leitor,


Estamos trazendo a você
uma série de Postagens
sobre Tycho Brahe.  
Confira:

- Tycho Brahe trabalhando em seu Uraniburgo, 
o Castelo de Urânia, a Musa das Estrelas, 
e seu Encontro com Kepler, ao final de sua vida.

-  Tycho Brahe e a Cratera com seu Nome, no Umbigo da Lua

- Tycho Brahe e a Supernova por ele observada, em 1572

- Tycho Brahe e o Grande Cometa de 1577

- Tycho Brahe e os protótipos de Espaçonaves com seu Nome, 
na Dinamarca


Copenhagen Suborbitals logo.png

Copenhagen Suborbitals is the world's only crewed, amateur, crowd funded space programme. Under the leadership of founders Kristian von Bengtson and Peter Madsen it has flown 4 home built rockets and 2 mock-up space capsules. Eventually, one of the members will fly into space (above 100 km) in a space capsule on the Spica rocket. The next step is launching the Nexø II rocket in July 2017, which also will see the design start of the big BPM-100 Spica rocket engine.
As an amateur organisation, the 55 members use their spare time on the project, while at the same time having regular dayjobs. At the annual general assembly, they elect a chairman and boardmembers. Currently, (2017) the chairman is Kristian Elof Sørensen[3], who also leads the Copenhagen Suborbitals maritime group.
Their use of relatively simple solutions for complex problems has also helped set Copenhagen Suborbitals apart; examples of this approach can be seen in their preference for simple mechanical solutions over more complex electronic ones, and their avoidance of potentially restrictive red tape by the use of lightly regulated technology in their projects.
.......................................................................

Space capsules

Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe being stacked.
Sketch of the Tycho interior
The micro space craft (MSC), named Tycho Brahe after the Danish astronomer, has a steel pressure hull, with room for one passenger. The passenger would be able to view the outside through a Perspex dome.[8] The occupant would fly in a half-standing/half-sitting position, in a specially designed seat, and wearing anti-G trousers to avoid blackout. Another compartment contains both the high-speed drogue parachute and the low-speed main parachutes for deceleration. The sheer volume of the MSC will provide the buoyancy in the water upon touchdown.
The first MSC was christened "Tycho Brahe 1" and its first flight was uncrewed using a crash test dummy.[13] A new aluminium MSC called MAX-1 named after Maxime Faget is under development.[citation needed] According to the group development on this capsule has been abandoned due to the physiological problems associated with large acceleration of a human in standing position.[14] The craft is now on display in the Tycho Brahe Planetarium in Copenhagen.[15]

Tycho Deep Space

Tycho Deep Space during testing of the Launch Escape System
Tycho Deep Space is a space capsule developed by von Bengtson. The first version officially named "Beautiful Betty" by Mikael Bertelsen, the capsule's protector.[16] The uncrewed capsule was launched on 12 August 2012 at sea by a test Launch Escape System, off the coast of Bornholm. The launch did not provide enough height for the parachute to deploy and the capsule was partly damaged on impact with the sea. The capsule is 2 meter in diameter, allowing for an astronaut to be in a horizontal position relative to the acceleration during launch and landing.






https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_Suborbitals





2001 January 7
See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download 
 the highest resolution version available.
Tycho Brahe Measures the Sky 
 Credit: Tycho Brahes Glada V„nner
Explanation: Tycho Brahe was the most meticulous astronomical observer of his time. Brahe, who lived between 1546 and 1601, set out to solve the day's most pressing astronomical problem: to determine whether the Earth or the Sun was at the center of the Solar System. To do this Brahe and his assistants created the first major astronomical observatory where they devised and used the most accurate pre-telescopic astronomical instrumentsTycho Brahe thus compiled tables of precise measurements of the positions and brightnesses of planets and stars. Brahe never solved the Solar System problem himself - but left data so impressively accurate his assistant Johannes Kepler was able to develop definitive laws. Brahe is also remembered for witnessing a supernova in 1572, showing that the Great Comet of 1577 was not an atmospheric phenomena, and for his metal nose.




Tycho Brahe era o mais meticuloso observador astronômico de seu tempo.  Brahe, que viveu entre 1546 e 1601, saiu em busca de resolver o problema astronômico mais impositivo: determinar se a Terra ou o Sol era o centro do Sistema Solar. Para fazer isso, Brahe e seus assistentes criaram o primeiro maior observatório astronômico onde eles inventaram e usaram os mais acurados instrumentos astronômicos anteriores ao telescópio.  Tycho Brahe, então, compilou tabelas de medição precisa das posições e brilhos dos planetas e estrelas.  Brahe nunca resolveu o problema do Sistema Solar - porém deixou dados tão impressionante acurados que seu assistente, Johannes Kepler, pôde desenvolver leis definitivas.  Brahe também é lembrado por testemunhar uma supernova, em 1572, e de mostrar que o Grande Cometa de 1577 não era um fenômeno atmosférico; e sempre lembrado por seu nariz metálico.





Tycho Brahe



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HEAT_1X_Tycho_Brahe#/media/File:Copenhagen_Suborbitals_MSC_1.jpg

Tycho Brahe is the first prototype spacecraft designed and built by CS. It is named in honor of the Danish astronomer Thyge Ottesen Brahe (1546-1601). It was originally designed to fit the largest rocket CS believed itself capable of building at the time of its conception in 2008. Thus, it has a diameter of just 64 cm which means the astronaut will be in a half sitting and half standing position, as seen in the original concept drawing below. The top of the spacecraft is an acrylic dome which provides the astronaut a full view of the sky during the flight to and back from space. The spacecraft is now retired after its flight on June 3rd 2011, carried by the HEAT-1X rocket.

https://copenhagensuborbitals.com/history/spacecraft-2/tycho-brahe/



Tycho Brahe é o primeiro protótipo de espaçonave desenhado e construído por C.S.  É assim nomeado em honra ao astrônomo dinamarquês Thyge Ottesen Brahe (1546-1601).  Foi originalmente desenhado para caber bem em um foguete bem grande, CS,  o qual acreditava-se ser capaz de ser construído no momento de sua concepção, em 2008.  Sendo asim, possui uma diâmetro de apenas 64 centímetros, o que significa que o astronauta terá que estar posicionado meio sentado e meio em pé - assim como pode ser visto no desenho de conceito abaixo. O teto da espaçonave possui um domo de acrílico, o que proporciona ao astronauta uma visão ampla do céu durante o voo em direção ao espaço e de volta do espaço.  Esta espaçonave encontra-se agora em repouso após o voo de 3 de junho de 2011, carregada pelo foguete HEAT-1X.



https://copenhagensuborbitals.com/history/spacecraft-2/tycho-brahe/

Conceptual design scetch of the Tycho Brahe spacecraft by Kristian von Bengtson, 2008.  





HEAT 1X Tycho Brahe
03-09-2010-TychoBrahe.jpg
HEAT 1X/Tycho Brahe on the floating launchpad "Sputnik".
ManufacturerCopenhagen Suborbitals
Country of originDenmark
Size
Height9.38 metres (30.8 ft)
Diameter64 centimetres (25 in)
Stages1
Capacity
Payload to
Suborbital
One passenger/Crash test dummy
Launch history
StatusCancelled
Launch sitesNexø spaceport
Total launches1
Failures1
Boosters


HEAT 1X Tycho Brahe[1] was the first rocket and spacecraft combination built by Copenhagen Suborbitals, a Danish organization attempting to perform the first amateursuborbital manned spaceflight. The vehicle consisted of a motor named HEAT-1X and a spacecraft Tycho Brahe. Its launch location was a floating platform named Sputnik. The rocket was test launched twice: In 2010 a power shortage caused a valve to freeze shut, which prevented launch. In 2011 the rocket was successfully launched, reaching an altitude of 2.8 kilometres (1.7 mi) before the engine was remotely shut off due to a wrong trajectory.

Micro Spacecraft Tycho Brahe


Tycho Brahe
The Micro Spacecraft (MSC) had a steel pressure hull, and room for one passenger designed and built by Kristian von Bengtson who co-founded Copenhagen Suborbitals. The passenger was able to view the outside through a perspex dome.[1] The occupant flew in a half-standing/half-sitting position, in order to decrease the diameter of the spacecraft. The passenger sat in a specially designed seat, and would have worn anti-G trousers to avoid blackout. The heat shield was made of floor cork. Life support would have consisted of a diving rebreather derived CO2 scrubber and breathing O2 system. Another compartment contained both the high-speed drogue parachute and the low-speed main parachutes for deceleration. The sheer volume of the MSC provided the buoyancy in the water. Pressurized nitrogen would have been used for attitude control. The attitude thrusters were part of the non-pressurized volume of the spacecraft.
The first MSC was christened "Tycho Brahe 1" and its first flight was unmanned using a crash test dummy.[2] The man-rated Tycho Brahe would have maintained the 640-mm diameter.
The ship was named after Tycho Brahe, a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive planetary and other astronomical observations, such as the 1572 supernova.

The rocket HEAT X1


Tycho Brahe HEAT-1X-P in flight after first launch on 3 June 2011

The business end of HEAT-1X before a ground test 28 February 2010.
The actual rocket development resulted in numerous successful tests of the solid fuel epoxy and the liquid oxidizer nitrous oxide, which was used in their hybrid rocket HATV (Hybrid Atmospheric Test Vehicle). The HATV rocket was only 1/3 size of the final rocket, HEAT.[3] This HEAT rocket (Hybrid Exo Atmospheric Transporter) with liquid oxygen and polyurethane, would carry the MSC (the micro-spacecraft) above the 100 km boundary and into space. The MSC was named after Tycho Brahe, and the combination was known as the HEAT-1X TYCHO BRAHE.
Gravity would then pull the MSC back to the atmosphere, where the MSC landed on water using parachutes.[4] The first HATV rocket was tested in a test stand on 8 March 2009.[5]
Originally HEAT was to have been fueled with paraffin wax but a ground test 28 February 2010 revealed that some of the paraffin wax only partially melted, instead of evaporating. The result was that HEAT-1X had less power than expected. A ground test firing of HEAT-1X-P (P for polyurethane) was conducted 16 May 2010.
Stabilization of the rocket was by rollerons, a rather simple mechanism also used by missiles.

......................................
Rocket

Texan Ben Brockert, rocket builder of Armadillo Aerospace and formerly of Masten Space Systems, prefers the liquid oxygen in HEAT-1X over the nitrous oxide in Virgin Galactic's rockets.[7]
The first version of the HEAT hybrid rocket booster, was built from ordinary construction steel, with the exception of the cryogenic liquid oxygen tank, which was made of AISI 304 stainless steel. The fuel was a polyurethane synthetic rubber, and the oxidizer was liquid oxygen. The oxygen was pressurized with helium gas. The booster could be (and was) shut down by radio signal from earth. Total cost was around $50,000.[8]
Lead-acid batteries were used as weight was not an issue on first launch, and proven robustness were deemed more important the low weight of LiPo. Four 12V 7Ah batteries were divided into two banks; two in parallel supplying 12V circuits redundantly, and two in series for the 24V Weibel radar transponder[9] sending to a Continuous Wave radar on the deck of Hjortø. The combination of transmitter and radar meant that several objects could be tracked in motion as well as being stationary. The budget did not allow for an inertial measurement unit to compensate for ship movement, but an infrared camera on the radar allowed operators to track the rocket.[10]

Offshore launch attempts


Heat 1X Tycho Brahe - lift-off at 3 June 2011
The permission to launch was given by Danish authorities, but the first option, the North Sea, was a possibility that the Danish Civil Aviation Administration (Statens Luftfartsvæsen) opened, but it was rejected in 2009 by the Danish Maritime Authority (Søfartsstyrelsen).[3] They preferred another area and then gave a formal and written permission to launch from a firing range in the Baltic Sea. Launches have been performed from a platform built for the purpose.

2010

The first full-scale test-launch to 30 kilometres (19 mi)[3] was planned to be off the coast of Bornholm sometime between 30 August and 13 September 2010[11]depending on the weather.[12] The launch carried a crash test dummy "Rescue Randy" instead of a human pilot, since manned flight is still some years away. Success criteria was stated to be completing the sea voyage and counting down - launch and recovery being bonuses.[13] On Tuesday 31 August 2010, the UC3 Nautilus pushed the launch platform Sputnik carrying the rocket and spacecraft from Copenhagen towards the launch area near NexøBornholm.[14] A launch attempt was made on Sunday 5 September 2010 14:43 CET, 12 UTC+02:00,[15] but this was a failure due to a stuck LOX valve.
A test flight was attempted on 5 September 2010, using the HEAT-1X rocket.[16] The vehicle on board launch platform Sputnik, sometimes pushed by homebuilt submarine UC3 Nautilus and sometimes towed by M/V Flora, moved from Copenhagen on Tuesday 31 August 2010[8][17] to Nexø on Wednesday 1 September 2010.[18]
Launch was initiated Sunday 5 September 2010 from Home Guard vessel Hjortø at co-ordinates: 55°02′57″N 15°36′11″E
The oxygen tank was filled, and the rocket was nearing launch.[19]
First attempt did not fire, attention was focused around oxygen valve and electronics.[20] The oxygen valve jammed. It had not been tested, the previous one was stolen along with the oxygen tank at the construction yard in June 2010.[21] The next launch attempt was pushed to June 2011, beyond the launch window ending 17 September 2010, because the rocket might have needed to be taken apart to check the LOX valve, and ignition rods and LOX needed to be replaced.[22] Power to the hairdryer was supplied by Nautilus until the platform was evacuated, but the 20 minutes from then to launch drained the batteries and left the LOX valve unheated so it froze.[23]

2011

The new launch attempt was on 3 June 2011. Hjortø was once again used for Mission Control. The submarine was left behind as the Sputnik had been outfitted with its own diesel engines during the winter 2010-11. After again experiencing a technical problem with the auto-sequence, the rocket and spacecraft went up in the air. After lift-off, HEAT 1X Tycho Brahe achieved supersonic speed but its flight path deviated from the vertical, so Mission Control had to shut the engine off after 21 seconds. Maximum altitude was estimated to 2.8 km and the ground track was 8.5 km. Booster and spacecraft separated but a parachute was torn off the booster due to excessive air drag. Tycho Brahe's parachutes didn't unfold correctly either, so the spacecraft received a large bulge at the 26 G impact. It is reported that it was water-filled when it was salvaged. The booster sank to a depth of 80–90 meters in the Baltic Sea[24][25] A film of the launch from the pilot's point of view has been released.[26]

Goal

A manned launch was at the time estimated to be 3–5 years away,[8] but if successful, Denmark would be the 4th nation to launch humans into space, after the USSR (Russia), USA, and China.[27]

Related

In November 2010, an experimental liquid rocket engine called XLR-3B exploded during its 12th ground test. A similar liquid rocket named TM-65 Tordenskjold (Thunder Shield), after the Dano–Norwegian naval hero Peter Tordenskjold, with 65 kN thrust was constructed.,[28] however this design failed and caused a fire during its final static test in 2014. As of December 2014, work on a third design concept is underway at Copenhagen Suborbitals,[29] while an alternative program more similar to HEAT-1X has been started by the original designer Peter Madsen[30]


CONHEÇA MAIS SOBRE
Copenhagen Suborbitals


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzJvMH999Os



VEJA OS VÍDEOS SOBRE AS TENTATIVAS DE ENVIO DA ESPAÇONAVE TYCHO BRAHE:




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7YZpvs513U


First flight of the HEAT1X-Tycho Brahe ended with a splashdown of the Tycho spaceship after 86 seconds, 8 kilometers downrange from launch site.

The video depicts the pilot (dummy) POV throughout the flight. The parachutes did not deploy fully, so the impact was rough enough to dislodge the observation cupola upon splashdown. The spacecraft was otherwise mostly intact with only minor deformation and water damage.

O primeiro voo do HEAT1X- Tycho Brahe terminou com um splashdown da espaçonave Tycho após 86 segundos, oito quilômetros de desvio e queda a partir do lugar do lançamento.






https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HueHF9pECI





https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=pv&GRid=7484&PIpi=277492






Tycho Deep Space - 

Tycho Espaço Profundo


Tycho Deep Space (TDS), nicknamed Beautiful Betty, is the 2nd generation prototype space capsule made at CS. Along with the growth of the entire organization it has become possible to build and launch rockets bigger than initially anticipated. This in turn allows us to design a more traditional space capsule and thus the shape of TDS resembles that of the Apollo command module.......................... The main structure is built in steel.



Tycho Deep Space (TDS), nomeado como Beautiful Betty, Linda Bety, é uma cápsula espacial protótipa de segunda geração e construída em CS.  Juntamente com a expansão da organização inteira, foi possível construir e lançar foguetes maiores do que foram pensados inicialmente.  Nesse sentido, podemos desenhar uma capsula espacial mais tradicional e, dessa maneira, a forma da TDS parece-se com a do módulo de comando da Apolo. .........................  A estrutura principal é construída em aço.


Main events in flight. Image: Thomas Pedersen / Morten Bulskov. Edited: Kristian von Bengtson
https://copenhagensuborbitals.com/history/spacecraft-2/tycho-deep-space-1/



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YCFIGf_0US8&t=1119s







Tycho Deep Space II

Tycho Espaço Profundo II


Tycho Deep Space II is the third generation space capsule, based on lessons learned and technology transfer from previous Copenhagen Suborbitals space capsules, and the final suborbital mission scenario. TDSII is a space capsule holding one person on a suborbital trajectory above the Karman-line. The capsule will be launched at sea on a Copenhagen Suborbitals mobile launch platform, Sputnik, flown into space and perform a splashdown at sea. Total air time is estimated to be approximately 20 minutes. It will be launched on HEAT-1600, the largest rocket ever build by amateurs.
Just like the previous capsule, TDSII will be fitted with a Launch Escape System. The concept is sketched below.

Tycho Deep Space II é a terceira geração de capsula espacial baseada em lições aprendidas e transferência de tecnologia de capsulas espaciais anteriores de Copenhagen Suborbitals, e o cenário final de missão suborbital.  TDSII é uma capsula espacial acolhendo uma pessoa em uma trajetória suborbital sobre a linha Karman.  A capsula será lançada do mar a partir de uma plataforma de lançamento móvel de Copenhagen Suborbitals, Sputinik, lançada ao espaço e para atuar um splashdown no mar.  O tempo total no ar é estimado em aproximadamente 20 minutos.  Será lançado por HEAR-A600, o maior foguete já construído por amadores.

Assim como a capsula anterior, TDSII conterá um Sistema de Escape de Lançamento. .....................



TDSII systems overview scetch by Kristian von Bengtson.
TDSII systems overview scetch by Kristian von Bengtson.
https://copenhagensuborbitals.com/history/spacecraft-2/tycho-deep-space-2/

TDSII touches Down in the Baltic Sea after a successful mission. Image: Carsten Brandt.
TDSII touches Down in the Baltic Sea after a successful mission. Image: Carsten Brandt.

Tycho Brahe. Bild im Rathaus von Kopenhagen.





Von Christian Bickel - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 2.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2971003