quinta-feira, 1 de junho de 2017

Tycho Brahe trabalhando em seu Uraniburgo, o Castelo de Urânia, a Musa das Estrelas, e seu Encontro com Kepler, ao final de sua vida





Tycho Brahe trabalhando
em seu Uraniburgo,
o Castelo de Urânia,
a Musa das Estrelas,
em uma Ilha entre Dinamarca e Suécia;
e a conclusão de sua vida,
tendo Johannes Kepler como assistente,
em Praga.










Olá!

Eu sou imensamente apaixonada
pela observação a olho nú
dos céus estrelados!


Sendo assim, 
sempre que estou encantando-me
sob a abóbada celeste,
lembro-me de Tycho Brahe
(hoje considerado um astrônomo 
atuando a astronomia observacional)
- pois costumo pensar que a visão que tenho dos céus
pode ser denominada 
quase como Braheana, 
digamos assim,
ou seja, talvez 
mais simples, menos complexa
(se levarmos em conta a complexidade 
de instrumentos ópticos
existentes nos dias atuais).












No entanto,
estou longe 
e muito longe mesmo
de chegar aos pés
do meu herói, 
Tycho Brahe,
pois que aquilo que comentei mais acima
- sobre uma visão mais simples, menos complexa -,
refere-se somente a mim, apenas a mim,
e não e jamais a Tycho Brahe.





1586 portrait of Tycho Brahe framed by the family shields of his noble ancestors, by Jacques de Gheyn.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe#/media/File:Jacques_de_Gheyn_Ii_-_Portrait_of_Tycho_Brahe,_astronomer_(without_a_hat)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg





E por que digo isso?
Porque na época desse mestre primordial
e mesmo dentre ainda seus rudimentares instrumentos,
ele conseguiu realizações fantásticas
na Astronomia da época, 
sem dúvida alguma,
pois que, dentre tantos outros trabalhos,
suas observações
de andamentos dos planetas visíveis
- Marte, principalmente -
e de posiconamentos de estrelas
mostraram-se impecáveis!



















Tycho Brahe described the construction and use of his zodiacal armillary instrument (ARMILLÆ ZODIACALES) for measuring altitudes and azimuths of celestial objects.




























Existem cerca de quatrocentos anos
nos separando -
o que me coloca em posição bem estranha
pelo fato de que hoje em dia
os instrumentos ópticos são fantásticos!

Porém, 
minha maneira de exercer 
meu grande amor pelo céu estrelado
consiste apenas na observação a olho nú,
à visão desarmada.

Ou seja,
estou longe de poder saber e compreender
tudo aquilo 
que Tycho Brahe sabia e compreendia
observando os céus estrelados
em uma era ainda anterior
à descoberta do telescópio

..............................

(mesmo que algumas de suas compreensões
não tenham sido inteiramente corretas
- como num exemplo, o fato de dizer
que os demais planetas giravam
em torno ao Sol e este em torno à Terra.
Quer dizer, sua visão heliocêntrica
era estruturada em sua visão geocêntrica.)










Brahe, Tycho. 1603. De mundi aetherei. Vol. 2. Page 189.


http://lhldigital.lindahall.org/cdm/ref/collection/cosmology/id/31





Harmonia Macrocosmica.









Sistema mundial por Paul Wittich e Tycho Brahe: 
No centro do mundo é a terra, 
mas os outros planetas se movem em torno do sol

Von User:Fastfission - Eigenes Werk, Gemeinfrei,
 https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=539033






A visão de mundo tychonische por Brahe 
em uma apresentação por Andreas Cellarius 1708







Aqui entre nós, Caro Leitor,
de alguma maneira,
não somos todos nós, 
terráqueos,
assim?, 
através um ponto de vista
inteiramente natural, 
primitivo, 
naïf 
e egocêntrico
(bem mais do que uma apreensão geocêntrica)
- mesmo que teoricamente saibamos
que vivenciamos uma realidade heliocêntrica.











.............................

During Kepler’s time in Prague working as Tycho’s assistant, they fought continuously, because Tycho refused to share his meticulous observations with Kepler. These were observations which Kepler desperately needed for his continuing quest to establish the true orbital motions of the planets. After Tycho’s death, Kepler stole the data in order to continue his calculations.
.........................................................................

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler had totally disparate backgrounds and temperaments. In spite of this, Tycho's painstaking and detailed observational data of the planet Mars, combined with Kepler's mathematical genius, allowed Kepler to derive the three laws of planetary motion. Both Tycho and Kepler made significant contributions to the change in the prevailing world view of a geocentric universe. It was the beginning of a systematic study that transformed Medieval thinking – alchemy became chemistry and astrology led to astronomy.
..........................................................................





Durante o tempo tempo, em Praga, de Kepler trabalhando como assistente de Tycho, eles brigavam continuamente por causa do fato de que Tycho recusava-se a compartilhar suas meticulosas observações com Kepler.  Estas eram observações que Kepler precisava desesperadamente para a continuidade de sua busca em estabelecer a movimentação orbital real dos planetas.  Após a morte de Tycho, Kepler apropriou-se dos dados de maneira a dar continuidade aos seus cálculos.
....................................

Tycho Brahe e Johannes Kepler vivenciaram totalmente disparatados backgrounds e temperamentos.  Apesar disso, os dados observacionais sobre o planeta Marte aos quais Tycho trabalhou diligentemente e detalhadamente combinados com a genialidade matemática de Kepler, proporcionou a Kepler apresentar as três leis da movimentação planetária.  Porém Tycho e Kepler deram contribuições significativas para a mudança da visão anterior do mundo em termos de um universo geocêntrico.  Foi o começo de um estudo sistemático que transformou o pensamento medieval - a alquimia tornou-se química e a astrologia enveredou para a astronomia.








Sabemos que Johannes Kepler
trabalhou como assistente de Tycho Brahe
em Praga,
e após a morte deste,
enunciou as Leis do movimento planetário, 
em 1609,
com base nos trabalhos e observações de seu mestre
- fundamentalmente sobre o planeta Marte.





Kepler, Johann. 1609. Astronomia nova. Illustration on page 288.









A bem da verdade,
Caro Leitor,
a intenção minha nesta Postagem
é trazer a você alguma informação
sobre Tycho Brahe e seus Trabalhos
em seu Uraniburgo
(o Castelo de Urânia, a Musa das Estrelas)
e ainda alguma informação
sobre sua rápida e importantíssima
vivência junto a Kepler
como seu assistente
por cerca de um ano ou dois anos...;
bem como
trazer a você
um Poema
que bem parece retratar essa
relação entre mestre e seu discípulo
e que trazemos a você, Caro Leitor,
ao final de nossa Postagem:
o famoso poema de Sarah Williams

The Old Astronomer and his Pupil

de onde sempre podemos extrair
dois versos, duas frases inesquecíveis
e que fazem parte
da vida de todos aqueles que amam os céus estrelados:


"Though my soul may set in darkness, it will rise in perfect light;

I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night."


Assim, o velho astrônomo termina sua vida dizendo 
(traduzindo livremente) :

"Apesar de minha alma permanecer na escuridão, 
ela ascenderá plenamente iluminada,

Meu amor pelas estrelas tem sido grande demais 
para que eu tema a (escuridão da) noite

.......ou .. para que eu tema a morte)."


Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward


P.S.  Caro Leitor,
Estamos trazendo a você
uma série de Postagens
sobre Tycho Brahe.  
Confira:

- Tycho Brahe trabalhando em seu Uraniburgo, 
o Castelo de Urânia, a Musa das Estrelas, 
e seu Encontro com Kepler, ao final de sua vida.

-  Tycho Brahe e a Cratera com seu Nome, no Umbigo da Lua

- Tycho Brahe e a Supernova por ele observada, em 1572

- Tycho Brahe e o Grande Cometa de 1577

- Tycho Brahe e o protótipo de uma Espaçonave com seu Nome, 
na Dinamarca





2001 January 7
Tycho Brahe Measures the Sky 


Explanation: Tycho Brahe was the most meticulous astronomical observer of his time. Brahe, who lived between 1546 and 1601, set out to solve the day's most pressing astronomical problem: to determine whether the Earth or the Sun was at the center of the Solar System. To do this Brahe and his assistants created the first major astronomical observatory where they devised and used the most accurate pre-telescopic astronomical instrumentsTycho Brahe thus compiled tables of precise measurements of the positions and brightnesses of planets and stars. Brahe never solved the Solar System problem himself - but left data so impressively accurate his assistant Johannes Kepler was able to develop definitive laws. Brahe is also remembered for witnessing a supernova in 1572, showing that the Great Comet of 1577 was not an atmospheric phenomena, and for his metal nose.





Tycho Brahe era o mais meticuloso observador astronômico de seu tempo. Brahe, que viveu entre 1546 e 1601, saiu em busca de resolver o problema astronômico mais impositivo: determinar se a Terra ou o Sol era o centro do Sistema Solar. Para fazer isso, Brahe e seus assistentes criaram o primeiro maior observatório astronômico onde eles inventaram e usaram os mais acurados instrumentos astronômicos anteriores ao telescópio. Tycho Brahe, então, compilou tabelas de medição precisa das positions e brilhos dos planetas e estrelas. Brahe nunca resolveu o problema do Sistema Solar - porém deixou dados tão impressionante acurados que seu assistente, Johannes Kepler, pôde desenvolver leis definitivas. Brahe também é lembrado por testemunhar uma supernova, em 1572, e de mostrar que o Grande Cometa de 1577 não era um fenômeno atmosférico; lemmbrado também por seu nariz metálico.





Tycho Brahe 

 


Nascimento 

Morte 
24 de outubro de 1601 (54 anos)

Nacionalidade 

Assinatura 
Tycho Brahe Signature.svg 


Orientador(es) 


Orientado(s) 


Campo(s) 



Tycho Brahe (SkåneDinamarca14 de dezembro de 1546 — Praga24 de outubro de 1601) nascido Tyge Ottesen Brahe,[2] foi um astrônomo dinamarquês. Teve um observatório chamado Uranienborg na ilha de Ven, no Öresund, entre a Dinamarca e a Suécia.

Tycho esteve ao serviço de Frederico II da Dinamarca e mais tarde do imperador Rodolfo II da Germânia, tendo sido um dos representantes mais prestigiosos da ciência nova - a ciência renascentista, que abrira uma brecha no sólido edifício construído pela Idade Média, baseado na síntese da tradição bíblica e da ciência de Aristóteles. Continuando o trabalho iniciado por Copérnico, foi acolhido pelos sábios ocidentais com alguma relutância. Estudou detalhadamente as fases da lua e compilou muitos dados que serviriam mais tarde a Johannes Kepler para descobrir uma harmonia celestial existente no movimento dos planetas, padrão esse conhecido como leis de Kepler.

A adesão de Tycho à ciência nova levou-o a abandonar a tradição ptolomaica, a fim de chegar a novas conclusões pela observação directa. Baseando-se nesta, construiu um sistema no qual, sem pretender descobrir os mistérios do cosmos, chega a uma síntese eclética entre os sistemas que poderíamos chamar de tradicionais e o de Copérnico.

Tycho foi um astrônomo observacional da era que precedeu a invenção do telescópio, e as suas observações da posição das estrelas e dos planetas alcançaram uma precisão sem paralelo para a época. Após a sua morte, os seus registos dos movimentos de Marte permitiram a Johannes Kepler descobrir as leis dos movimentos dos planetas, que deram suporte à teoria heliocêntrica de Copérnico. Tycho não defendia o sistema de Copérnico mas propôs um sistema em que os planetas giram à volta do Sol e este orbitava em torno da Terra.

Em 1599, por discordar do novo rei do seu país, mudou-se para Praga e construiu um novo observatório, onde trabalhou até morrer, em 1601.


Morte

Tycho morreu em 24 de outubro de 1601, onze dias depois de ficar muito doente durante um banquete. Ele permaneceu doente por onze dias e consta que teria dito a Kepler: "Ne frustra vixisse videar!": "Não me deixe parecer ter vivido em vão". Por centenas de anos, a crença geral foi que ele teria morrido de um problema na bexiga. Foi dito que ele teria evitado de sair do banquete antes do fim, por boas maneiras, e que teria estressado sua bexiga ao limite, desenvolvendo uma infecção que o matou. Essa teoria foi apoiada pelo relato de Kepler.

Investigações recentes sugerem que Tycho morreu não de problemas urinários, mas de envenenamento por mercúrio[3]: níveis extremamente tóxicos foram encontrados em seus cabelos e na raiz dos cabelos. Tycho pode ter se envenenado tomando medicamentos contendo impurezas não-intencionais de cloreto de mercúrio, ou pode ter sido envenenado. 

De acordo com um livro de 2005 de Joshua Gilder e Anne-Lee Gilder, há evidências substanciais de que Kepler assassinou Brahe [4]; eles argumentam que Kepler tinha os meios, motivos, e oportunidade, e roubou os dados de Tycho com sua morte. De acordo com os Gilders, seria improvável que Tycho tivesse se envenenado, uma vez que ele era um alquimista conhecido por ser familiarizado com a toxidade dos diferentes compostos de mercúrio.

Foi sepultado na Igreja de Tym, Praga na República Checa.[5]


O nariz de Tycho

Em 1566, quando era estudante, Tycho Brahe duelou com um nobre dinamarquês, Manderup Parsbjerg. Ele acabou perdendo um pedaço do nariz. Pelo resto de sua vida ele usou uma prótese que seria de ouro e prata. Porém, em 1901, sua tumba foi aberta e observou-se que o osso no crânio, na região do nariz, tinha cor verde, sinal de exposição ao cobre. Alguns historiadores especularam que ele teria tido várias próteses para diferentes ocasiões, notando que uma de cobre poderia ser mais leve e confortável que uma de metal precioso.

Cronologia 

1546 - 14 de dezembro - Tycho Brahe nasce em Knudstrup, Dinamarca

1559 - Tycho entra na Universidade de Copenhague

1562 - Tycho transfere-se para a Universidade de Leipzig

1563 - Faz sua primeira observação astronômica: uma conjunção de Júpiter e Saturno

1572 - Descobre uma nova estrela, abalando a fé na doutrina cristã-aristotélica sobre a perfeição e imutabilidade da esfera celeste

1574 - Publica: De nova Stella ("Sobre a nova estrela")

1577 - Observa a passagem de um cometa, e demonstra que não se trata de um fenômeno atmosférico, como se acreditava desde Aristóteles

1582 - O papa Gregório XIII reforma o calendário, corrigindo-o em dez dias, com base nos cálculos de duração do ano efetuados por Tycho

1599 - Tycho muda-se para Praga. Johannes Kepler torna-se seu assistente 

1601 - 13 de outubro - Participa de um banquete em Praga, no qual ficou doente

1601 - 24 de outubro - Tycho Brahe morre, em Praga

1609 - Johannes Kepler enuncia as Leis do movimento planetário, com base nos trabalhos e observações de Tycho Brahe. 







Von Original uploader was User:OsvátA at hu.wikipedia
 - Originally from hu.wikipedia; description page is/was here., Gemeinfrei,






Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)


Tyge (Latinized as Tycho) Brahe was born on 14 December 1546 in Skane, then in Denmark, now in Sweden. He was the eldest son of Otto Brahe and Beatte Bille, both from families in the high nobility of Denmark. He was brought up by his paternal uncle J�rgen Brahe and became his heir. He attended the universities of Copenhagen and Leipzig, and then traveled through the German region, studying further at the universities of Wittenberg, Rostock, and Basel. During this period his interest in alchemy and astronomy was aroused, and he bought several astronomical instruments. In a duel with another student, in Wittenberg in 1566, Tycho lost part of his nose. For the rest of his life he wore a metal insert over the missing part. He returned to Denmark in 1570.


 
Tycho Brahe with metal insert over nose 

In 1572 Tycho observed the new star in Cassiopeia and published a brief tract about it the following year. In 1574 he gave a course of lectures on astronomy at the University of Copenhagen. He was now convinced that the improvement of astronomy hinged on accurate observations. After another tour of Germany, where he visited astronomers, Tycho accepted an offer from the King Frederick II to fund an observatory. He was given the little island of Hven in the Sont near Copenhagen, and there he built his observatory, Uraniburg, which became the finest observatory in Europe.

Tycho designed and built new instruments, calibrated them, and instituted nightly observations. He also ran his own printing press. The observatory was visited by many scholars, and Tycho trained a generation of young astronomers there in the art of observing. After a falling out with King Christian IV, Tycho packed up his instruments and books in 1597 and left Denmark. After traveling several years, he settled in Prague in 1599 as the Imperial Mathematician at the court of Emperor Rudolph II. He died there in 1601. His instruments were stored and eventually lost.

Tycho's major works include De Nova et Nullius Aevi Memoria Prius Visa Stella ("On the New and Never Previously Seen Star) (Copenhagen, 1573); De Mundi Aetherei Recentioribus Phaenomenis("Concerning the New Phenomena in the Ethereal World) (Uraniburg, 1588); Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica ("Instruments for the Restored Astronomy") (Wandsbeck, 1598; English tr. Copenhagen, 1946); Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata ("Introductory Exercises Toward a Restored Astronomy") (Prague 1602). His observations were not published during his lifetime. Johannes Kepler used them but they remained the property of his heirs. Several copies in manuscript circulated in Europe for many years, and a very faulty version was printed in 1666. At Prague, Tycho hired Johannes Kepler as an assistant to calculate planetary orbits from his observations. Kepler published the Tabulae Rudolphina in 1627. Because of Tycho's accurate observations and Kepler's elliptical astronomy, these tables were much more accurate than any previous tables.


 
Tycho Brahe 


Tycho Brahe's contributions to astronomy were enormous. He not only designed and built instruments, he also calibrated them and checked their accuracy periodically. He thus revolutionized astronomical instrumentation. He also changed observational practice profoundly. Whereas earlier astronomers had been content to observe the positions of planets and the Moon at certain important points of their orbits (e.g., oppositionquadrature, station), Tycho and his cast of assistants observed these bodies throughout their orbits. As a result, a number of orbital anomalies never before noticed were made explicit by Tycho. Without these complete series of observations of unprecedented accuracy, Kepler could not have discovered that planets move in elliptical orbits. Tycho was also the first astronomer to make corrections for atmospheric refraction. In general, whereas previous astronomers made observations accurate to perhaps 15 arc minutes, those of Tycho were accurate to perhaps 2 arc minutes, and it has been shown that his best observations were accurate to about half an arc minute.

Tycho's observations of the new star of 1572 and comet of 1577, and his publications on these phenomena, were instrumental in establishing the fact that these bodies were above the Moon and that therefore the heavens were not immutable as Aristotle had argued and philosophers still believed. The heavens were changeable and therefore the Aristotelian division between the heavenly and earthly regions came under attack (see, for instance, Galileo's Dialogue) and was eventually dropped. Further, if comets were in the heavens, they moved through the heavens. Up to now it had been believed that planets were carried on material spheres (spherical shells) that fit tightly around each other. Tycho's observations showed that this arrangement was impossible because comets moved through these spheres. Celestial spheres faded out of existence between 1575 and 1625. 

 
Tychonic Universe 


If Tycho destroyed the dichotomy between the corrupt and ever changing sublunary world and the perfect and immutable heavens, then the new universe was clearly more hospitable for the heliocentric planetary arrangement proposed by Nicholas Copernicus in 1543. Was Tycho therefore a follower of Copernicus? He was not. Tycho gave various reasons for not accepting the heliocentric theory, but it appears that he could not abandon Aristotelian physics which is predicated on an absolute notion of place. Heavy bodies fall to their natural place, the Earth, which is the center of the universe. If the Earth were not the center of the universe, physics, as it was then known, was utterly undermined. On the other hand, the Copernican system had a number of advantages, some technical (such as a better lunar theory and smaller epicycles), and others more based on harmony (an obvious explanation of retrograde planetary motion, a strict demonstration of the order and heliocentric distances of the planets). Tycho developed a system that combined the best of both worlds. He kept the Earth in the center of the universe, so that he could retain Aristotelian physics (the only physics available). The Moon and Sun revolved about the Earth, and the shell of the fixed stars was centered on the Earth. But Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn revolved about the Sun. He put the (circular) path of the comet of 1577 between Venus and Mars. This Tychonic world system became popular early in the seventeenth century among those who felt forced to reject the Ptolemaic arrangement of the planets (in which the Earth was the center of all motions) but who, for various reasons, could not accept the Copernican alternative.



Sources: The standard biography of Tycho Brahe is Victor E. Thoren, The Lord of Uraniborg: A Biography of Tycho Brahe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Still useful is the more technical treatment by J. L. E. Dreyer, Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth Century (Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black, 1890; 2d ed. New York: Dover, 1963). C. Doris Hellman's article in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography is also useful. Tycho's works and correspondence have been collected in Tychonis Brahe Dani Opera omnia, ed. J. L. E. Dreyer, 15 vols. (Copenhagen 1913-1929; reprinted Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1972). See also John Christianson, "The Celestial Palace of Tycho Brahe," Scientific American, 204, no. 2 (1961):118-128; Charles D. Humberd, "Tycho Brahe's Island," Popular Astronomy, 45 (1937):118-125; Joseph Ashbrook, "Tycho Brahe's Nose," Sky and Telescope, 29, no. 6 (1965):353, 358; C. Doris Hellman, "Was Tycho Brahe as Influential as He Thought?"British Journal for the History of Science, 1 (1963):295-324; Ann Blair, "Tycho Brahe's Critique of Copernicus and the Copernican System," Journal for the History of Ideas, 51 (1990): 355-77.


Image: Sextant: From Tycho Brahe's Description of his Instruments and Scientific Work, tr. Hans R�der et al, Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1946), p. 72.

�1995 Al Van Helden
Last updated





Learned: 
Tico Brahae, His Astronomicall Coniectur 
of the New and Much Admired [Star].








Werke - TRABALHOS

  • De nova et nullius ævi memoria prius visa Stella. (deutsch: Vom neuen und nie zuvor gesehenen Stern), Kopenhagen 1573, erstes Buch über die Supernova von 1572 im Sternbild Kassiopeia.

  • Herausgeber Tycho Brahe: Diarium Astrologicum et Metheorologicum. (deutsch: Astrologisches und Meteorologisches Tagebuch), Uraniborg 1586, zusammengestellt von Brahes Schüler Elias Olsen Morsing,

  • De mundi aetheri recentioribus phaenomenis. (deutsch: In der ätherischen Welt neulich beobachtete Phänomene), Uraniborg 1588.

  • Herausgeber Tycho Brahe: En Elementisch oc Jordisch Astrologia. Uraniborg 1591, Bauernregeln über das Wetter, Verfasser waren Brahes Buchdrucker.

  • Epistolarum Astronomicarum Liber Primus. (deutsch: Briefwechsel über Astronomie – Erstes Buch), Uraniborg 1596 (Erster Teil Brahes Briefwechsel, der zweite wurde mit Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata herausgegeben).

  • Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica. (deutsch: Die Neuere Astronomische Instrumentenlehre), Wandsbek 1598 (Reprint: KLP Koniasch Latin Press, Prag, 1996, ISBN 80-85917-23-8), colorierte Originalausgabe mit handschriftlicher Widmung zu finden in der Digitalen Sammlung der LLB Detmold), Beschreibungen und Bilder von Gebäuden und Instrumenten auf Ven als auch selbstbiographische Anteile.

  • Stellarum octavi orbis inerrantium accurata restitutio. Wandsbek 1598.

  • Herausgeber Johannes Kepler: Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata. (deutsch: Neuere einführende Übungen der Astronomie) Prag 1602–1603, zweites Buch über die Supernova von 1572, größtenteils auf Uraniborg fertiggestellt, Originalausgabe zu finden in der Fondos Digitalizados der Universidad de la Sevilla fondosdigitales.us.es.

  • De mundi aetherei recentioribus phaenomenis, liber secundus. (deutsch: In der ätherischen Welt neulich beobachtete Phänomene, Zweites Buch), Frankfurt 1610,

  • Opera omnia sive astronomiae instauratae. Frankfurt 1648, in 15 Bänden (Reprint: Olms, Hildesheim 2001, ISBN 3-487-11388-0), umfangreiche Planeten-Daten Sammlung Tycho Brahes.

  • Über den neuen Stern - Ein Loblied auf die himmlischen Wissenschaften. (Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-89997-244-3), deutsche Erstveröffentlichung.





Frontispiece to the 1610 edition of Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata

By Tycho Brahe - http://digital.slub-dresden.de/sammlungen/werkansicht/26463702X/5/, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12118231




CARO LEITOR,
SAIBA MUITO MAIS
SOBRE A VIDA DE TYCHO BRAHE
EM








Tycho Brahe-museet

Local histórico em Sankt Ibb, Skåne Län, Sweden



BIOGRAFIA


O MUSEU NO FACEBOOK:








Urania, Muse of astronomy. Marble, head and torso: Roman copies after Greek originals from the 4th century BC, rest of the body: modern restoration. The head does not belong to the body. From the Villa Adriana near Tivoli, 1786 (head).














Von Joan Blaeu - (There is no permanent link) Browse to [1], click "View Digital Object", scroll down and click on link "GMG/189/177/mapa", image should appear named "GMG189177mapa.jpeg" in right hand panel., Gemeinfrei,

Map of the island of Hven from a copper etching of Willem Janszoon Blaeu's Blaeu Atlas 1663. Willem made this map based on his experience as a student of Tycho Brahebetween 1594 and 1596. On this map North is up, Denmark to the west and Scania, now part of Sweden, to the east. It shows the location of Uraniborg just above the centre, and below the linked set of ponds that Tycho had created to both collect water and power his papermill and other small industries on the island. Name of map : INSULAE HVAENA Cartographer : Johannes Blaeu Area displayed : Island of Hven Map record source: Biblioteca Nacionale Espana
















CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=144634







Uranienborg de Tycho Brahe, 
obra de Constantin Hansen, 1882








Uranienborg
Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

Uranienborg (em sueco: Uraniborg e em português: Uraniburgo) é um observatório astronômico situado na ilha de Hven, em Oresund, que fica entre a Dinamarca e a Suécia. Foi construído entre 1576 e 1580 pelo astrônomo dinamarquês Tycho Brahe por ordem de Frederico II.

edifício foi dedicado à Urânia, a musa da Astronomia, e assim chamado Uranienborg, "O Castelo de Urânia". Foi o primeiro observatório construído sob encomenda. A pedra fundamental foi lançada em 8 de agosto de 1576. Tycho abandonou Uranienborg em 1597, e este foi destruído em 1601. Atualmente, o local está sendo restaurado.

O edifício principal de Uranienborg era quadrado, tendo cerca de 15 m em cada lado, e construído principalmente em tijolo vermelho. Duas torres semicirculares, cada qual no lado norte e ao sul do edifçio principal, dava ao prédio uma aparência um tanto retangular. O andar principal consistia de quatro quartos, um dos quais era ocupado por Tycho e seus familiares, e as demais por astrônomos visitantes. A torre norte continha a cozinha, e a sul, a biblioteca. O segundo andar era dividido em três quartos, dois de tamanho igual e um maior. O quarto maior era reservado para visitas da realeza. Era no segundo andar que ficavam os instrumentos astronômicos principais. No terceiro andar havia um "loft", subdividido em oito quartos pequenos para os estudantes.[1]

Rodeando Uranienborg havia uma grande muralha, que tinha 75 m de comprimento e 5.5 m de altura. Uranienborg localizava-se bem no centro do terreno, separada das muralhas um uma extensa e intrincada rede de arbustos e jardins. Além de serem bastante decorativos, os jardins proviam ervas para as experiências medicinais de Tycho. Atualmente os jardins estão sendo recriados com sementes encontradas no local ou descritas nos textos de Tycho.

Uranienborg foi um projeto extremamente caro. Estima-se que seu custo tenha sido de aproximadamente 1% de todo o orçamento do Estado durante o período de construção.[2]

Logo após a construção, ficou claro que os instrumentos montados na torre eram facilmente abalados pelo vento, e Tycho decidiu construir um observatório em um local mais apropriado.[2] O resultado foi Stjerneborg ("castelo das estrelas"), um sítio menor construído completamente em andar térreo e dedicado puramente a observações.

Tendo perdido apoio do novo monarca, Cristiano IV da Dinamarca, Tycho abandonou Hven em 1597 e tanto Uranieborg quanto Stjerneborg foram destruídos logo após sua morte. Stjerneborg foi objeto de escavações arqueológicas nos anos 1950, que resultaram na restauração do observatório.[3]











The observatory Stjärneborg, 
used by Tycho Brahe, on VenSweden.



Von PatríciaR - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2981975






LEIA MUITO MAIS
SOBRE TYCHO BRAHE
E SUA VIDA EM SEU URANIENBORG
ACESSANDO
















EM PRAGA,
O (RÁPIDO PORÉM IMPORTANTÍSSIMO) ENCONTRO
ENTRE MESTRE E DISCÍPULO,
ENTRE TYCHO BRAHE E JOHANNES KEPLER



 


.............................

During Kepler’s time in Prague working as Tycho’s assistant, they fought continuously, because Tycho refused to share his meticulous observations with Kepler. These were observations which Kepler desperately needed for his continuing quest to establish the true orbital motions of the planets. After Tycho’s death, Kepler stole the data in order to continue his calculations.
.........................................................................

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler had totally disparate backgrounds and temperaments. In spite of this, Tycho's painstaking and detailed observational data of the planet Mars, combined with Kepler's mathematical genius, allowed Kepler to derive the three laws of planetary motion. Both Tycho and Kepler made significant contributions to the change in the prevailing world view of a geocentric universe. It was the beginning of a systematic study that transformed Medieval thinking – alchemy became chemistry and astrology led to astronomy.


Durante o tempo tempo, em Praga, de Kepler trabalhando como assistente de Tycho, eles brigavam continuamente por causa do fato de que Tycho recusava-se a compartilhar suas meticulosas observações com Kepler.  Estas eram observações que Kepler precisava desesperadamente para a continuidade de sua busca em estabelecer a movimentação orbital real dos planetas.  Após a morte de Tycho, Kepler apropriou-se dos dados de maneira a dar continuidade aos seus cálculos.
....................................

Tycho Brahe e Johannes Kepler vivenciaram totalmente disparatados backgrounds e temperamentos.  Apesar disso, os dados observacionais sobre o planeta Marte aos quais Tycho trabalhou diligentemente e detalhadamente combinados com a genialidade matemática de Kepler, proporcionou a Kepler apresentar as três leis da movimentação planetária.  Porém Tycho e Kepler deram contribuições significativas para a mudança da visão anterior do mundo em termos de um universo geocêntrico.  Foi o começo de um estudo sistemático que transformou o pensamento medieval - a alquimia tornou-se química e a astrologia enveredou para a astronomia.


The Astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was a nobleman from Denmark who made astronomy his life's work because he was so impressed when, as a boy, he saw an eclipse of the Sun take place at exactly the time it was predicted. Tycho's life's work in astronomy consisted of measuring the positions of the stars, planets, Moon, and Sun, every night and day possible, and carefully recording these measurements, year after year.
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler 





(1571-1630) came from a poor German family. He did not have it easy growing up. His father was a soldier, who was killed in a war, and his mother (who was once accused of witchcraft) did not treat him well. Kepler was taken out of school when he was a boy so that he could make money for the family by working as a waiter in an inn. As a young man Kepler studied theology and science, and discovered that he liked science better. He became an accomplished mathematician and a persistent and determined calculator. He was driven to find an explanation for order in the universe. He was convinced that the order of the planets and their movement through the sky could be explained through mathematical calculation and careful thinking.


Kepler's De Stella Nova
Kepler's De Stella Nova, 1606
Tycho wanted to study science so that he could learn how to predict eclipses. He studied mathematics and astronomy in Germany. Then, in 1571, when he was 25, Tycho built his own observatory on an island (the King of Denmark gave him the island and some additional money just for that purpose). Tycho named his island observatory Uraniburg-Urania after the muse of astronomy. He lived and worked in his observatory until he had a disagreement with the King of Denmark. Tycho’s main goal was to determine the positions of the stars and planets as accurately as possible. This could only be done by constructing precision observing instruments and making and recording many observations of stars and planets night after night.
Kepler became interested in science and mathematics when in school at about the age of 18. He was not particularly interested in astronomy until 1600 when Kepler met Tycho Brahe in Prague, and Tycho asked him to be his assistant. Tycho would pay him well. However, Tycho died one year later, and even though Kepler was appointed astronomer to the court, he found so little official support for his position that he had to survive by making astrological predictions for noblemen who wanted their fortunes told.


Uraniborg
Uraniborg – Tycho's Observatory in Denmark
Tycho was a scientist who worked by direct observation. Kepler was a scientist who worked by calculation and testing one idea after another. Tycho's life's work of measuring the positions of objects in the sky was in itself useless without someone like Kepler to come along and make sense of those measurements. In the same way, Kepler's efforts to understand how the planets moved would be nothing but speculation, guessing, and mysticism if he did not have the basic data – the accurate measurements made by Tycho – against which to test his ideas and theories. Each one’s work is meaningful because of the work of the other. The contributions to science by these two astronomers from radically different backgrounds was set against a time of great turmoil in European history – the early 1600's. It was a time of upheaval, superstition, and fear – a time when court astrologers were powerful, and the stars were thought to predict and guide one's destiny.


Tycho Brahe's Skeleton
Tycho Brahe’s Skeleton, November, 2010
After Brahe's difficulties with the King of Denmark, he obtained the position of Royal Mathematician at the court-in-exile of the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, in Prague. He was arrogant, conceited, and obnoxious. While at university he had a duel with a fellow student over which one was the best mathematician. Tycho may have been the superior mathematician, but he was not the better duelist: during the encounter he lost his nose, which he replaced with one made of gold. He had different metal noses which he changed depending upon the occasion. At a dinner given by a local Baron, Tycho consumed great quantities of wine but would not leave the table in the presence of the Baron, considering it to be rude behavior. It has long been thought that the resulting urinary tract infection, along with Tycho's refusal to stop abusing his body with overdrinking and overeating, might have led to his death a few days later. According to medical experts however, bladder ruptures are rare, and Brahe probably died from kidney failure. The first exhumation of Tycho's remains at Tyne Church in Prague was for the purpose of determining his cause of death. The exhumation produced new questions about Tycho Brahe’s death – including the possibility of murder!
Tycho Brahe's Skull
Tycho Brahe’s Skull, November, 2010
On November 10, 2010, the remains of Tycho Brahe were once again exhumed. The remains were transported to Prague to be examined by an international team of Danish and Czech archaeologists, doctors, chemists and medical anthropologists. The researchers hope to use DNA testing and other modern medical diagnostic tools to learn as much as possible about Brahe's medical history, as well as his cause of death. In 1996 tests were conducted on samples of hair that had been taken from Brahe’s body the first time it was exhumed, back in 1901. Those tests indicated high levels of mercury, and that in the 24 hours before Brahe died he had ingested a large amount of mercury – though the test did not indicate either the actual amount of mercury or if the amount was fatal. Tycho Brahe died in 1601 at the age of 54.

Kepler's Astronomica Nova
Kepler's Astronomica Nova, 1906
Did someone administer the mercury to Brahe? Did Johannes Kepler kill Brahe to get his hands on Brahe’s observations? Owen Gingerich, who is a professor of astronomy at Harvard, does not agree with this theory. He is an expert on Kepler, and he stated that it would not make sense for Kepler to kill Tycho because at the time he died, Tycho was trying to convince the emperor to make Kepler the imperial mathematician. By killing Tycho, Kepler would have ruined that opportunity. However, Kepler did get the job even after Tycho’s death. Did the Danish King Christain IV order Brahe’s poisoning because Brahe had slept with the king’s mother? Did Tycho – who was also an alchemist, accidently ingest mercury during one of his experiments? Or did he suffer a fatal overdose of mercury while self-medicating for his painful kidney ailment? The test results from the 2010 exhumation are expected to contribute to knowledge of his life and perhaps his cause of death – so far those results have not been released to the public as of December, 2011).

Kepler and Rudolph
Kepler and Rudolph II in Prague
Johannes Kepler was born into much humbler surroundings. He expected to enter the clergy, but instead became a mathematics teacher in Graz, Austria. His belief in the Copernican concept of a heliocentric universe was a dangerous one. With the coming of the 30 Years' War, Kepler and his wife were exiled due to their Protestant beliefs. During Kepler’s time in Prague working as Tycho’s assistant, they fought continuously, because Tycho refused to share his meticulous observations with Kepler. These were observations which Kepler desperately needed for his continuing quest to establish the true orbital motions of the planets. After Tycho’s death, Kepler stole the data in order to continue his calculations.


The Somnium
The Somnium
Bettina Forget Artwork
Bettina Forget Artwork Based on The Somnium
Eventually the war reached Prague, and Kepler was once again persecuted for his religious beliefs. He also lost his wife and son to a plague, and his mother was convicted of witchcraft and imprisoned. It took Kepler five years to get his mother released and her sentence commuted to one of exile. During this time Kepler wrote what many consider to be the first work of science fiction, entitled Somnium (The Dream). This story probably contributed to his mother's persecution as she resembled one of the characters – an old woman who had dealings with demons and devils. Kepler tells the tale through the eyes of a young man who bears obvious similarities to Kepler himself. So when the story hints that the protagonist’s mother is a witch; authorities make a connection with Kepler’s real-life mother and arrest her on charges of being a witch. It didn’t help that, years before, the woman who raised Kepler’s mother had actually been burned as a witch. Somnium is an incredible story for an astronomer and mathematician in the early 1600’s – full of moon people, space travel, and magical beings. What an imagination! The lunar inhabitants weren’t mere recreations of terrestrial life, but entirely new forms of life adapted to lunar extremes. Large and tough-skinned, they evoke visions of dinosaurs. Some used boats, implying not just life but intelligent, non-human life. Imagine how shocking that must have been at the time. Kepler still was not done with the Somnium. After his mother died, Kepler completed a set of explanatory footnotes which by themselves were almost three times longer than the text. He intended to publish the Somnium bound with ancient works by Plutarch and Lucian — books that both inspired Kepler’s efforts and would have lent credibility to the Somnium. Unfortunately, he died before he could realize his "Dream." The final version of the Somnium was published shortly after his death as a stand-alone work. Exactly what Kepler intended when he wrote the Somnium is not clear, and the work remains a bit of a puzzle. But the result, the mix of facts and enlightened dreaming, are hallmarks of classic science fiction.

Planetary Motion
Kepler's 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
Kepler finished his days in poverty, writing horoscopes for noblemen in order to survive. Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler had totally disparate backgrounds and temperaments. In spite of this, Tycho's painstaking and detailed observational data of the planet Mars, combined with Kepler's mathematical genius, allowed Kepler to derive the three laws of planetary motion. Both Tycho and Kepler made significant contributions to the change in the prevailing world view of a geocentric universe. It was the beginning of a systematic study that transformed Medieval thinking – alchemy became chemistry and astrology led to astronomy.

The Tycho and Kepler Supernova Observations 

Tycho's SNR
Tycho's SNR (Chandra Image)
Tycho Brahe was walking home from his laboratory on November 11, 1572 when his attention was attracted by the star in the constellation of Cassiopeia which was as bright as Jupiter and had not been visible before. Tycho wrote the following description (from Burnham’s Celestial Handbook):
"On the 11th day of November in the evening after sunset, I was contemplating the stars in a clear sky. I noticed that a new and unusual star, surpassing the other stars in brilliancy, was shining almost directly above my head; and since I had, from boyhood, known all the stars of the heavens perfectly, it was quite evident to me that there had never been any star in that place of the sky, even the smallest, to say nothing of a star so conspicuous and bright as this. I was so astonished of this sight that I was not ashamed to doubt the trustworthiness of my own eyes. When I observed that others, on having the place pointed out to them, could see that there was really a star there, I had no further doubts. A miracle indeed, one that has never been previously seen before our time, in any age since the beginning of the world."


Kepler
Kepler's SNR (Chandra Image)
De Stella Nova
De Stella Nova, Prague, 1606
Most people assume that because the supernova of 1604 was named after Kepler, that he must have been the first to see it. However, historical reports indicate that the supernova was first seen in northern Italy on the evening of October 9, 1604, and by the Chinese and Koreans during the next few days. In Prague, an independent sighting was made on October 10th through a break in the clouds, by J. Brunowski, who reported the sighting to Kepler. Cloudy weather in Prague prevented Kepler from observing the object until the evening of October 17th. Kepler observed the newly visible star over the course of a year, and in 1606 published a detailed account in his book – De Stella Nova.

These two supernova events were observed and recorded; the dates can not be disputed. Both were Type Ia supernova events – the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf approaching the Chandrasekhar limit. Both were close enough to Earth that they were observable with the naked eye. Both supernovas were observed and studied until they faded from view several months later. It seems fitting – considering the interconnected lives of Tycho and Kepler –they would both have a supernova named after them.


De Stella Nova
Statue of Johannes Kepler (left) and Tycho Brahe (right) in Prague






MEU AMOR PELAS ESTRELAS...


The Old Astronomer to His Pupil

Though my soul may set in darkness, it will rise in perfect light;
I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night.

(traduzindo livremente) :

Apesar de minha alma permanecer na escuridão, ela ascenderá plenamente iluminada,
Meu amor pelas estrelas tem sido grande demais para que eu tema a (escuridão da) noite
.......ou .. para que eu tema a morte)."

Este poema é o grande companheiro das noites solitárias dos amantes das estrelas.


Momento de Reverência à Astronomia

Transcrevo (parte de) o belíssimo poema
de SARAH WILLIAMS
que tão bem descreve o amor à Astronomia, 
o respeito à passagem do conhecimento do mestre para o discípulo, 
a tristeza do não-reconhecimento dos pares contemporâneos a respeito do trabalho realizado, 
a emoção de se unir ao mestre reverenciado e às estrelas quando chega o momento da morte... 
Morte que nunca é temida por todos aqueles que amaram a escuridão da noite 
e as luzes das estrelas...


The Old Astronomer to His Pupil

Sarah Williams


Reach me down my Tycho Brahe, I would know him when we meet,
When I share my later science, sitting humbly at his feet;
He may know the law of all things, yet be ignorant of how
We are working to completion, working on from then to now.

Pray remember that I leave you all my theory complete,
Lacking only certain data for your adding, as is meet,
And remember men will scorn it, 'tis original and true,
And the obliquy of newness may fall bitterly on you.

But, my pupil, as my pupil you have learned the worth of scorn,
You have laughed with me at pity, we have enjoyed to be forlorn,
What for us are all distractions of men's fellowship and smiles;
What for us the Goddess Pleasure with her meretricious smiles.

You may tell that German College that their honor comes too late,
But they must not waste repentance on the grizzly savant's fate.
Though my soul may set in darkness, it will rise in perfect light;
I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night.

...............



"Reach me down my Tycho Brahe, I would know him when we meet"

A poeta Sarah Williams nestes versos bem descreveu o sentimento do velho astrônomo em seu leito de morte, deixando seu conhecimento como herança para seu discípulo...

Ele pede ao seu discípulo para lhe trazer o retrato pintado de Tycho Brahe, o grande mestre astrônomo anterior a Kepler, a Galileu....para reconhecê-lo quando se encontrarem... E o velho astrônomo tem certeza de que – apesar de Tycho Brahe saber a lei sobre todas as coisas, ainda assim não sabe o que o velho astrônomo já acumulou de conhecimentos, dando continuidade ao trabalho da astronomia desde aquele tempo mais antigo até aquele momento...trabalho esse que, humildemente, o velho astrônomo anseia por compartilhar com o antigo mestre..... Essa é a primeira estrofe.

A segunda estrofe começa com o velho astrônomo deixando como herança ao seu discípulo sua teoria já completa, ao mesmo tempo que fazendo seu herdeiro saber que a esta teoria ele deverá acrescentar mais e mais informações. E o avisa: os homens zombarão dele – apesar de sua teoria se provar original e verdadeira. E sentencia: a ignorância em relação ao novo conhecimento cairá como fel sobre o discípulo.

Na terceira estrofe e nos dois primeiros versos da quarta estrofe, o velho astrônomo devaneia sobre as zombarias e o não-reconhecimento que o discípulo teve oportunidade de vivenciar junto ao seu mestre e sobre o bom-humor e temperança com que ambos tiveram que enfrentar tais vicissitudes...... Também assinala que qualquer honraria agora chegaria tarde demais...

Os dois últimos versos da última estrofe são de uma beleza ímpar:

"Though my soul may set in darkness, it will rise in perfect light;

I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night."


Assim, o velho astrônomo termina sua vida dizendo (traduzindo livremente) :

"Apesar de minha alma permanecer na escuridão, ela ascenderá plenamente iluminada,

Meu amor pelas estrelas tem sido grande demais para que eu tema a (escuridão da) noite

.......ou .. para que eu tema a morte)."



Esse último verso tem sido o grande companheiro 
de todos aqueles que amam verdadeiramente as estrelas, 
sejam astrônomos ou não....

Com um abraço estrelado,
Janine Milward

..............................................


FONTES:

The Old Astronomer to his Pupil
- Poema de Sarah Williams

"Best Loved Poems of the American People"
Hazel Felleman, ed. Garden City Publishing Co.
Garden City, NY. 1936, pp. 613-614





O POEMA COMPLETO


From The Old Astronomer (To His Pupil) 



Reach me down my Tycho Brahé, – I would know him when we meet,
When I share my later science, sitting humbly at his feet;
He may know the law of all things, yet be ignorant of how
We are working to completion, working on from then to now.

Pray remember that I leave you all my theory complete,
Lacking only certain data for your adding, as is meet,
And remember men will scorn it, ‘tis original and true,
And the obloquy of newness may fall bitterly on you.

But, my pupil, as my pupil you have learned the worth of scorn,
You have laughed with me at pity, we have joyed to be forlorn,
What for us are all distractions of men’s fellowship and wiles;
What for us the Goddess Pleasure with her meretricious smiles.

You may tell that German College that their honor comes too late,
But they must not waste repentance on the grizzly savant’s fate.

Though my soul may set in darkness, it will rise in perfect light;
I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night.


What, my boy, you are not weeping? You should save your eyes for sight
You will need them, mine observer, yet for many another night.
I leave none but you, my pupil, unto whom my plans are known.
You “have none but me,” you murmur, and I “leave you quite alone”?

Well then, kiss me, – since my mother left her blessing on my brow,
There has been a something wanting in my nature until now;
I can dimly comprehend it, – that I might have been more kind,
Might have cherished you more wisely, as the one I leave behind.

I “have never failed in kindness”? No, we lived too high for strife,–
Calmest coldness was the error which has crept into our life;
But your spirit is untainted, I can dedicate you still
To the service of our science: you will further it? you will!

There are certain calculations I should like to make with you,
To be sure that your deductions will be logical and true;
And remember, “Patience, Patience,” is the watchword of a sage,
Not to-day nor yet to-morrow can complete a perfect age.

I have sown, like Tycho Brahé, that a greater man may reap;
But if none should do my reaping, 'twill disturb me in my sleep
So be careful and be faithful, though, like me, you leave no name;
See, my boy, that nothing turn you to the mere pursuit of fame.

I must say Good-bye, my pupil, for I cannot longer speak;
Draw the curtain back for Venus, ere my vision grows too weak:
It is strange the pearly planet should look red as fiery Mars,–
God will mercifully guide me on my way amongst the stars.




Sarah Williams (December 1837[a] –April 25, 1868) was an English poet and novelist, most famous as the author of the poem "The Old Astronomer". She published short works and one collection of poetry during her lifetime under the pseudonyms Sadie and S.A.D.I., the former of which she considered her name rather than a nom de plume.[1] Her posthumously published second poetry collection and novel appeared under her given name.

Biography


Williams was born in December 1837[a] in Marylebone, London, to Welsh father Robert Williams (c. 1807–1868) and English mother Louisa Ware (c. 1811–1886).[2][3] She was very close to her father and considered her "bardic" interests to come from him.[4] As a young child unable to pronounce 'Sarah', she inadvertently gave herself the nickname 'Sadie'.[1] An only child, she was educated first by her doting parents and later governesses.[4]

Although Williams was only half Welsh by birth and never lived outside London, she incorporated Welsh phrases and themes in her poems and Sadie was considered a Welsh poet.[5]

Robert Williams died in January 1868 of a sudden illness. Already suffering from cancer and devastated by the loss of her father, Sarah's condition deteriorated.[4] After three additional months of hiding the cancer from her friend and mother, she agreed to surgery despite knowing it might kill her. She died in Kentish Town, London during surgery on April 25, 1868.[3][6]

Her second book of poetry, Twilight Hours: A Legacy of Verse, was published in late 1868. The collection included "The Old Astronomer" (also known as "The Old Astronomer to His Pupil", as it was titled in a 1936 U.S. reprint), now the most famous of her poems. The second half of the fourth stanza is widely quoted:


Though my soul may set in darkness, it will rise in perfect light;
I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night.[7]


Ian Rankin titled his Inspector Rebus novel Set in Darkness after the lines and quoted them in the introduction. In an interview, Rankin linked the quote to the rise of a restored Scottish Parliament and the redemption of the Inspector in the novel.[8] The poem is written from the perspective of an aged astronomer on his deathbed bidding his student to continue his humble research. The lines have been chosen by a number of professional and amateur astronomers as their epitaphs.[3][9]
Notes 
a Contemporary birth records and publications at Williams' death indicate that she was born in December 1837.[2][6] Later sources and modern databases give the date incorrectly as 1841, based on The Poets and the Poetry of the Nineteenth Century (published in 1898).[4] 





Meus Gatinhos 
Tycho Brahe, Kepler e Rosinha Planck.
Ao fundo, Gatinho Galileu








Veja o Vídeo apresentando
meus Gatinhos
Tycho Brahe e Kepler
brincando sob a árvore Eugênia,
a bem-nascida,
em tempo de floração belíssima!

Tycho ficou o tempo todo
bahando-se sobre a cadeira
enquanto Kepler aventurou-se
através os galhos da árvore.





Tycho Brahe. Bild im Rathaus von Kopenhagen.



Von Christian Bickel - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 2.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2971003






Brahe, Tycho, 1602. 
Astronomiae instauratae mechanica. 
Mural quadrant plate.


Description Tycho Brahe's clocks
Publisher Nuremberg: apud Levinum Hulsium
DateOriginal 1602